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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Open circulatory system does not ... Works together with the circulatory system ... Circulatory system. Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


1
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • Ch. 42
  • The second half

2
Aquatic Gas Exchange
  • Advantage
  • Keeping surface moist is no problem
  • Disadvantage
  • O2 concentrations in water are low, especially in
    warmer and saltier environments

3
Terrestrial Gas Exchange
  • Advantages
  • O2 diffuses faster in air
  • Air contains much more O2 than water
  • Disadvantage
  • Surfaces must be internal to avoid loss of water
    due to evaporation

4
Ventilation
  • Ventilation increases the amount of O2 taken in
    stagnant water is no good
  • Crayfish wave their appendages to create currents
    brings fresh water to gills
  • Fish force water across their gills
  • Blood also runs countercurrent to the water
  • Taking in and forcing out O2 from lungs

5
Protists and Less Complex Animals
  • Once again, less complex organisms do not need
    complex organ systems
  • Gas exchange takes place due to diffusion

6
Insects
  • Have a series of openings along their sides
    called SPIRACLES
  • Tubes called TRACHEA lead from spiracles to all
    of the body tissues
  • Open circulatory system does not transport O2 and
    CO2

7
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8
Fish
  • Most fish breathe with gills feathery filaments
    that contain capillaries and a large surface area
    for gas exchange
  • They breathe by pumping water through the mouth,
    over gill filaments and out through slits in the
    sides of the pharynx
  • Double Pump System by decreasing pressure in
    mouth, water is forced in by increasing pressure
    in mouth, water is forced out through the opercula

9
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10
Fish
  • Because the gills are so VASCULAR and have a
    large surface area, gas exchange can happen
    adequately

11
Fish
  • Countercurrent blood flow increases the
    efficiency of obtaining O2 from water

12
Human Respiration
  • Works together with the circulatory system
  • Exchange of gases between atmosphere, blood, and
    cells
  • If respiratory system and/or circulatory system
    fails, death will occur
  • Cells need O2 for work release CO2 as a waste
    product
  • Accumulation of excess CO2 is toxic to cells and
    MUST be removed

13
  • Respiratory System
  • Intakes oxygen
  • Releases carbon dioxide waste
  • Circulatory system
  • Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells

14
Respiratory Structures and Organs
15
Respiratory Structures and Organs
  • Nose made of cartilage and bone and is designed
    to warm, moisten, and filter air as it comes into
    the system
  • Pharynx (throat) conducts food and air
    exchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize
    pressure

16
Respiratory Structures and Organs
  • Larynx (voice box) connects the pharynx and the
    trachea made of cartilage contains vocal cords
  • Epiglottis flap of tissue that covers trachea
    ensures food travels down the esophagus

17
Respiratory Structures and Organs
  • Trachea (windpipe) tubular passage way for air
    carries air to the lungs, C-shaped
    cartilage rings, divides at end
  • Bronchi pair of tubes that
    branch from trachea and enter
    lungs have cartilage plates
    lining is ciliated secretes mucus

18
Respiratory Structures and Organs
  • Bronchioles tiny tubes lacking cartilage and
    cilia possess smooth muscle
  • Autonomic nervous system regulates diameter of
    bronchioles
  • Sympathetic division dilates bronchioles
  • Parasympathetic division constricts bronchioles

19
Respiratory Structures and Organs
  • Alveoli cup shaped structures at the end of the
    bronchioles that resemble bunches of grapes are
    in direct contact with capillaries (gas
    exchange) covered with
    SURFACTANT that keep them
    from collapsing

20
Alveoli
21
  • Lungs paired, cone-shaped organs that are
    surrounded by a pleural membrane, made of elastic
    tissue, and divided into lobes

22
Mechanics of Breathing
  • Inhaling (active process) Air moves in. Why??
  • Gases move from an area of high pressure to low
    pressure
  • During inspiration diaphragm pulls down and
    lungs expand
  • When lungs expand, it INCREASES the VOLUME, which
    DECREASES the PRESSURE inside lungs
  • Lung pressure is lower than outside pressure, so
    air moves in

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24
Mechanics of Breathing
  • Exhaling (passive process) breathing out
  • Diaphragm and muscles relax
  • Volume in lungs and chest cavity decreases, so
    now pressure inside increases
  • Air moves out because pressure inside is HIGHER
    than OUTSIDE atmosphere

25
Respiration
  • What is respiration?
  • External respiration exchange of O2 and CO2
    between respiratory surfaces and the blood
    (breathing)
  • Internal respiration exchange of O2 and CO2
    between the blood and cells
  • Cellular respiration process by which cells use
    O2 to produce ATP

26
External Respiration
  • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and blood
  • Partial pressure of O2 higher in alveoli than
    blood so O2 diffuses into blood
  • Partial pressure of CO2 higher in blood than
    alveoli, so CO2 moves into alveoli in opposite
    direction and gets exhaled out

27
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28
Internal Respiration
  • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and tissues
  • Pressure of O2 higher in blood than tissues so O2
    gets release into tissues.
  • Pressure of CO2 higher in tissue than in blood so
    CO2 diffused in opposite direction into blood.
  • CO2 Is a waste product
  • O2 Is used in cellular respiration

29
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30
Gas Exchange
  • Earths atmosphere is about 78 Nitrogen and
    about 21 O2
  • What happens to the air when we inhale?
  • 300 million alveoli in a healthy lung
  • Hemoglobin can hold four O2 molecules

31
Gas Transport in Blood
  • Carbon dioxide
  • 70 as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) dissolved in
    plasma
  • 23 bound to hemoglobin
  • 7 as CO2 dissolved in plasma
  • Oxygen
  • 99 bound to hemoglobin
  • 1 as O2 dissolved in plasma
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs because CO binds
    to hemoglobin more readily than O2

32
Control of Breathing
  • Breathing is regulated by the rhythmicity center
    in the medulla of brain
  • Medulla stimulates inspiratory muscles (diaphragm
    external intercostal muscles)

rhytmicity center
33
Control of Breathing
  • The most important factor affecting the
    rhythmicity center is CO2
  • ? in arterial CO2 causes ? in
    acidity of cerebrospinal
    fluid (CSF)
  • ? in CSF acidity is detected by pH
    sensors in medulla
  • medulla ? rate and depth of breathing

34
Respiratory System Disorders
  • Asthma muscles of bronchioles constrict,
    drastically reducing ventilation
  • Emphysema destruction of alveoli
  • Tuberculosis highly contagious bacterial
    infection
  • Lung cancer 90 of lung cancer victims
    have a history of smoking

35
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