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Circulatory System

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Circulatory System. Blood. Formed Elements. erythrocytes - hemoglobin. leukocytes - immune function ... System. Age Related Changes - Blood. 1. Few Changes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Circulatory System


1
Circulatory System
2
Blood
Formed Elements erythrocytes -
hemoglobin leukocytes - immune
function platelets - clotting Plasma water salt
s (electrolytes) nutrients wastes proteins a
lbumins, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen
3
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6
Lymphatic System
7
Age Related Changes - Blood
1. Few Changes all parameters fairly
stable fibrinogen increases with age (25 by age
70) small increase in viscosity decrease in
red bone marrow (decline in reserve capacity)
8
Age Related Changes (Heart)
Structural 1. Loss of muscle cells replaced with
connective tissue 2. Accumulation of lipofuscin
(up to 7 of volume) 3. Endocardium thickens,
valves thicken and harden, calcify Functional -
Little Change in Healthy Inds. At Rest 1.
Decrease in Cardiac Reserve (capacity to
exercise) 2. Increase in Blood Pressure
9
Age Related Changes (Vessels)
1. Decrease Elasticity of Vessels
(arteriosclerosis) decrease elastin, increase
collagen, increase crossbridges 2. Thickening
of Arterial Walls 3. Decrease in lumen volume 4.
Increase in peripheral resistance hypertrophy of
left ventricle
10
Age Related Pathologies
Atherosclerosis- normal or pathological
? Multifactorial disease Age-related changes
vs. Environ. Factors Endothelial Damage -
platelet involvement Macrophage infiltration -
foam cells Increase Cell Proliferation (intima)
- atheroma Deposition of Lipids - dependent on
serum lipids LDL vs. HDL Calcification
11
Atherosclerosis
12
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13
Fibrous Plaque
14
Myocardial Infarction
15
Risk Factors
1. High blood cholesterol (especially LDL or
"bad" cholesterol over 100 mg/dL) 2. Cigarette
smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke 3. High
blood pressure 4. Diabetes mellitus 5. Obesity
6. Physical inactivity
16
Hypertension
Elevation of Blood Pressure with
Age Systolic/Diastolic e.g. 140/90 Result of
Arteriosclerosis/ Atherosclerosis Leads to
kidney Damage Increase risk for stroke, aneurysm,
CHD
17
Coronary Artery Disease
Insufficient blood flow to cardiac
muscle Ischemic Heart Disease Angina Thrombus
Myocardial Infarction
18
Congestive Heart Failure
Cardiac Insufficiency - heart too weak to pump
enough blood (decrease in cardiac output) Blood
pressure drops Blood pools in veins Kidney
function adversely affected If left ventricle
most affected, blood pools on pulmonary
side leading to pulmonary edema
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