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Title: http:www'lewport'wnyric'orgjwanamakeranimationsProtein Synthesis long'html


1
AP Biology Mrs. Speirs
Protein Synthesis
Awesome Animation of the Protein Synthesis Process
http//www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animation
s/Protein20Synthesis20-20long.html
2
Protein Synthesis …to make proteins
3
Transcription
DNA ? RNA (nucleus) DNA serves as the
template for the
synthesis of mRNA RNA polymerase travels
along the DNA strand base pairing rule C…G
and A..U Synthesis of the RNA proceeds in the
5' ? 3' direction
undergo processing steps in the nucleus
to produce functional mRNA
molecules that will
diffuse into the cytoplasm for translation
4
Transcription
The gene of interest (template strand of DNA) is
copied.
DNA (gene of interest) 5 ATGGCCTGGACTTCA 3 3
TACCGGACCTGAAGT 5 (TEMPLATE
STRAND) Transcribed mRNA 5 AUGGCCUGGACUUCA 3
mRNA
http//users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyP
ages/T/Transcription.html
5
The genetic code consists of 64 triplets of
nucleotides. There are three nucleotides
(triplet) code for one amino acid. These
triplets are called codons. The genetic code can
be expressed as either RNA codons or DNA codons.
mRNA codons are actually "read" during the
synthesis of proteins...translation.
6
Remember Transcription occurs in the nucleus…
DNA 5 ATGGCCTGGACTTCA 3 3 TACCGGACCTGAAGT
5 (TEMPLATE STRAND) 5 AUGGCCUGGACUUCA 3
mRNA
mRNA diffuses into the cytoplasm to begin the
process of Translation…
5 AUGGCCUGGACUUCA 3 mRNA
Amino Acids Assemble
Met
Ala
Trp
Thr
Ser
7
In a gene, the specific sequence of the
nucleotides specifies for a specific sequence of
amino acids. In the cytoplasm, rRNA reads the
mRNA codons. Transfer RNA molecules are
specific for one amino acid and for a particular
triplet of nucleotides in the mRNA codon. The
family of tRNA molecules enables the codons in a
mRNA molecule to be translated into the sequence
of amino acids in the protein.
8
Analogy
Analogy Forming three lettered word
sentences Triplet Codons of DNA three lettered
words Triplet Codons of mRNA three lettered
words Triplet anti-codon for tRNA three
lettered words Amino acids brought by tRNA
three lettered words Sequence of amino acids
that form the protein The sentence formed by
the three lettered words.
9
mRNA Processing Steps
THEeioDtOGufcSAT
Pre Cursor mRNA
Introns nitrogen bases that do not code
for Amino acids. Removed by restriction enzymes.
THE D OG SAT
Exons nitrogen bases that do code for Amino
acids Joined by ligase enzymes Add a Guanine
cap and poly-Adenine tail
10
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
Mature mRNA ready to diffuse into the cytoplasm
for the second part of protein synthesis.
Translation
mRNA codes ? Protein
Three Lettered Words ? Sentence
11
Translation
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
This mature mRNA diffuses into the cytoplasm.
http//users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyP
ages/T/Translation.html
12
DOG
SAT
SAT
THE
nucleus
THE
cytoplasm
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
rRNA
THE
THE
DOG
DOG
rRNA
SAT
DOG
SAT
A ribosome (rRNA) attachesreading the mRNA
codons (the triplet nucleotide sequence).
13
tRNA
DOG
SAT
SAT
nucleus
THE
THE
cytoplasm
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
rRNA
THE
THE
DOG
DOG
rRNA
SAT
DOG
SAT
Specific tRNAs grab the specific amino acid
needed by the rRNA the molecule that reads
the mRNA codons.
14
DOG
SAT
SAT
nucleus
cytoplasm
THE
THE
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
tRNA
THE
THE
DOG
DOG
rRNA
SAT
DOG
SAT
Specific tRNAs grab the specific amino acid to
match the specific codon in the mRNA.
15
DOG
SAT
SAT
nucleus
cytoplasm
THE
DOG
tRNA
THE
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
tRNA
THE
rRNA
THE
DOG
DOG
SAT
DOG
SAT
Peptide (covalent) bonds are formed between the
amino acids (words in the sentence).
16
DOG
SAT
SAT
nucleus
cytoplasm
THE
SAT
tRNA
DOG
tRNA
THE
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
rRNA
THE
THE
DOG
DOG
SAT
DOG
SAT
Once the ribosome reaches the end of the mRNA it
will read the stop codon (the period at the end
of the sentence) and then, it will release the
protein into the cytoplasm.
17
DOG
SAT
SAT
nucleus
cytoplasm
THE
SAT
DOG
THE
G-cap…THE DOG SAT…poly-A tail
THE
rRNA
THE
DOG
rRNA
DOG
SAT
DOG
SAT
The newly assembled protein… THEDOGSAT…is
released into the cytoplasm.
18
Source Sites
http//www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/protein_s
ynthesis.html http//tidepool.st.usm.edu/crswr/pr
otsynthmov.html http//www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwa
namaker/animations/Protein20Synthesis20-20long.
html http//gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/f
irefly/ http//www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anis
amples/molecularbiology/polyribosomes.html http/
/www.people.virginia.edu/rjh9u/gif/protein.mov h
ttp//www.wisc-online.com/objects/index.asp?objID
AP1302 http//www.technologyreview.com/articles/5
940.htm http//www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anis
amples/molecularbiology/plasmidcloning_fla.html h
ttp//www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/dyn
amicillustrations/paternitytesting.html http//ww
w.channel4.com/learning/microsites/G/genetics/acti
vities/shockwave-11.html
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