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Medieval Times ca. 5001450

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Chinese political system was hostile to scientific progress (ships with more ... Astronomy: The Aztec calendar had 18 months of 20 days; 1 year = 360 days. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Times ca. 5001450


1
Medieval Times (ca. 500-1450)
  • It developed in closed conjunction with Christian
    thought
  • Christian theology is dominated by the concept of
    creation
  • All the knowledge is in the revealed book
  • No why-questions
  • Nature was subservient of man
  • Natural theology God exists because of the order
    and harmony of the world which requires an
    intelligent being
  • Knowledge kept by Muslims and Jews scholars and
    Christian monks

2
Chinese Civilization
  • They were equals to the Greeks on astronomy and
    military technology
  • They were ahead in agriculture, iron working and
    civil engineering
  • They lack scientific speculation, geometry
  • Many descriptions of plants and animals

3
Major Innovations (BCE)
4
Han Dynasty (202 BCE-109 AD)
  • Zhang Heng (78-139 AD) invented the first
    water-powered rotating armillary sphere,
    catalogued 2500 stars and over 100
    constellations, and in 132, invented the first
    seismological detector

5
  • Ma Jun (200-265 AD) improved the design of the
    silk loom, designed mechanical chain pumps for
    irrigation and created a large and intricate
    mechanical puppet theatre operated by a large
    hidden waterwheel
  • Also invented the South Pointing Chariot, a
    complex mechanical device that acted as a
    mechanical compass vehicle that used a
    differential gear to apply equal amount of torque
    to wheels rotating at different speeds

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Tang Dynasty (AD 618-906)
  • The four great inventions
  • Compass (20 AD)
  • Papermaking (200 AD)
  • Movable block printing (200 AD)
  • Gunpowder (300 AD)

8
Song Dynasty (960-1279)
  • In 1070, Su Song also compiled the Ben Cao Tu
    Jing (Illustrated Pharmacopoeia, original source
    material from 1058 1061 AD) with a team of
    scholars
  • This treatise covered a wide range of other
    related subjects, including botany, zoology,
    minralogy and metallurgy

9
Jesuits in China (16th.-17th. Centuries)
  • A good deal of exchange occurred between Western
    and Chinese science and technology up to the Qing
    Dynasty (silk trade)
  • The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th
    centuries introduced Western science and
    astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to
    China, and knowledge of Chinese technology was
    brought to Europe

10
Why there was not a scientific revolution in
China?
  • Chinese political system was hostile to
    scientific progress (ships with more than 2 masts
    banned in 1433)
  • The religious and philosophical framework of the
    Chinese intellectuals made them unable to believe
    in the ideas of laws of nature
  • Individual human experiences express causative
    principles

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12
Islamic Renaissance
  • Seek knowledge even if it is in China Muhammad
  • Started in the 8th. century peaked in the
    9th--12th. centuries
  • Appropriated knowledge from Greek philosophers,
    Indian mathematics and the Chinese
  • Islamic rulers were sympathetic to science
  • Need to develop the textile, paper, metal,
    agricultural, and shipping industries for trade
    reasons
  • Mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, astronomy,
    optics, tides

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16
  • Muslim rulers supported the intellectual elites
    of Christians, Jews and other thinkers together
    with Muslim scholars
  • Distrust for natural law and casuality. Always
    reference to Gods will
  • Acquisition of knowledge included the concepts of
    God, divine (order) purpose, design and morality
  • Medieval scholars loved to make lists,
    encyclopedic, bestiaries

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18
Islamic Decline (15th century)
  • After that, they only imported science and the
    kind of practical only
  • In 1580 a chief religious scholar, the
    Seyhülislam ordered the destruction of an
    observatory three years after it was built
  • Few printed publications on science even by the
    18th. century
  • They use the writings of Galen to demonstrate the
    existence of God via design
  • Shiites gave reasoning a larger importance.
    Todays example Iran
  • Modern Muslim history is one of constant
    humiliation

19
  • Kept religious control over science development
  • Did not encourage critical thinking
  • In Europe, Pagan mentality arouse around science
    the occult took a back seat
  • Isaac Newton worked on Biblical prophesy and
    alchemy but was careful not to publish anything
    along those lines

20
  • Fascination with the occult, pseudoscience
  • Tie Nazism and September 11 to Darwinism
  • Evolution disrupts their notion of harmony,
    order
  • Current Muslim postmodernism means, among other
    things, rejection of foreign, modern ideas,
    schizophrenic behaviors, sense of apocalyptic
    phase in history, hostility toward Western ideas
  • Al Quran is considered infallible
  • There is considerable religious populism

21
University of Sankore (Timbuktu, todays Mali)
  • 14th.-16th. centuries
  • Flourished because it sat between the great
    superhighways of the era the Sahara, with its
    caravan routes carrying salt, cloth, spices and
    other riches from the north, and the Niger River,
    which carried gold and slaves from the rest of
    West Africa

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23
  • Traders brought books and manuscripts from across
    the Mediterranean and Middle East
  • Timbuktu was home to the University of Sankore,
    which at its height had 25,000 scholars
  • Scribes copied manuscripts brought by travelers.

  • Timbuktu became a repository of an extensive and
    eclectic collection of manuscripts.

24
  • Books on astronomy, botany, pharmacology,
    geometry, geography, chemistry, biology
  • Book on Islamic practices gives advice on
    menstruation
  • A medical text suggests using toad meat to treat
    snake bites, and droppings from panthers mixed
    with butter to soothe boils
  • There are thousands of Korans and books on
    Islamic law, as well as decorated biographies of
    the Prophet Muhammad, some dating back a
    millennium, complete with diagrams of his shoes.

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27
Mayans
  • Zenith 250-900 AD
  • Astronomy calendars, observatories
  • Mathematics vigesimal system
  • Medicine casts, dentures, surgery, herbal,
    mind-altering substance
  • Production of pigments, ceramics, textiles

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31
Aztecs
  • 14th.-16th. Centuries
  • Astronomy The Aztec calendar had 18 months of 20
    days 1 year 360 days. They added 5 days
    called the "Nemontemi", or sacrificial days
  • Herbal medicine
  • Most writings (codices) were destroyed by the
    Spaniards

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34
More Medieval (except Spain) Developments
  • Rise of Scholasticism (11th. Century)
  • It meant lack of freedom of thought
  • Truth determined by logic, not observation
  • Blind faith in the Authorities
  • Little intellectual progress until the 12th.
    Century when first Greek text started to be
    translated into Latin at Paris and Oxford

35
Physiologus
  • Anonymous, written in Alexandria III-IV
    centuries
  • Bestiary
  • Etymological explanation
  • Distinctive characteristics
  • Trait (moralizing, uncritical tales of animals)
  • Translated to all vernacular languages of Europe
  • Very much used until the Renaissance
  • The mother of all bestiaries

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37
Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (Italian
Peninsula, 354-430 CE)
  • God gave nature the characteristics, the power of
    creating things
  • Believed in spontaneous generation
  • The successive appearance of lower species
  • Some species might not have been in Noah's ark
  • Between the 5th. and the 12th. all
    western knowledge was kept in
    monasteries

38
Isidore of Seville(Cartagena, Spain, ca. 560
636)
  • Etymology 20 volumes. The study of the
    histories of words. He believed that the names of
    things gave some insight into their properties
  • 1 bestiary volume
  • Copied uncritically from Pliny the Elder,
    Augustine. Introduced Aristotle to Europe before
    the Arabs
  • Believed the Earth was round

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40
Albertus Magnus (Germany, 1193-1280)
  • Opera Omnia
  • Believed in spontaneous generation, the inherited
    of acquired characters, and pangenesis

41
Roger Bacon (England, ca.1220-ca. 1292)
  • Opus Majus
  • Popularized the term experimental science
  • The incompleteness of our knowledge
  • Mankind acquires knowledge by reasoning and
    experience
  • He believed in spontaneous generation
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