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Child Abuse

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The Newly Recognized, Shattering Effects of Child Abuse ... Child abuse is still sanctioned--indeed, held in high regard--in our society as ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Abuse


1
Child Abuse
  • Lauren Mumford
  • Matt Lawrence
  • Joseph Rattie
  • Mike Worwood
  • Robert James

2
What constitutes abuse?
  • Physical
  • Sexual
  • Psychological
  • Neglect
  • Mistreatment
  • Coercive Parenting

3
Distribution of Abuse
(Source Department of Health and Human Services,
1999.)
4
Perspectives
  • Social Systems
  • Some adults may be more inclined than others to
    abuse.
  • Some children may be more likely than others to
    be abused.
  • Abuse may be more likely in some contexts,
    communities and cultures than others.
  • Who are the Abusers?
  • Often (Not Always) highly stressed younger
    parents with little social support, have been
    abused themselves, and have a coercive parenting
    style.
  • Who is Abused?
  • One child is often singled out

5
Example of Coercive Interaction
  • Parent repeatedly makes a request from child. The
    command is usually vague, intrusive, and in an
    irritated voice.
  • The child responds coercively (e.g. whining,
    tantrums) The parent becomes frusterated and
    eventually yields.
  • The child stops the behavior, the parent is
    alleviated.
  • The childs behavior ceases for a short time but
    has been reinforced, the parents withdrawing
    behavior is also reinforced.

6
Effects of Coercive Parenting Practices
  • Parent and sibling coercive cylces
    bidirectionally reinforce aggressive behavior.
  • Coercive family relationships often lead to
    childhood conduct disorder.
  • Early antisocial behavior is predictive of
    delinquency, adult crime, alcoholism, school
    failure, marital distress, and employment
    problems
  • (Kazdin, 1987 Robins, 1978).

7
The Newly Recognized, Shattering Effects of Child
Abuse
  • All children are born to grow, to develop, to
    live, to love, and to articulate their needs and
    feelings for their self-protection.
  • For their development children need the
    respect and protection of adults who take them
    seriously, love them, and honestly help them to
    become oriented in the world.
  • The normal reactions to such injury should be
    anger and pain since children in this hurtful
    kind of environment, however, are forbidden to
    express their anger and since it would be
    unbearable to experience their pain all alone,
    they are compelled to suppress their feelings,
    repress all memory of the trauma, and idealize
    those guilty of the abuse. Later they will have
    no memory of what was done to them.
  • Disassociated from the original cause, their
    feelings of anger, helplessness, despair,
    longing, anxiety, and pain will find expression
    in destructive acts against others (criminal
    behavior, mass murder) or against themselves
    (drug addiction, alcoholism, prostitution,
    psychic disorders, suicide).

8
The Newly Recognized, Shattering Effects of Child
Abuse
  • If those people become parents, they will
    then often direct acts of revenge for their
    mistreatment in childhood against their own
    children, whom they use as scapegoats. Child
    abuse is still sanctioned--indeed, held in high
    regard--in our society as long as it is defined
    as child-rearing. It is a tragic fact that
    parents beat their children in order to escape
    from emotions stemming from how they were treated
    by their own parents.
  • Is this true do you hit people to forget that you
    were hit?
  • Is some of it genetics, are we predisposed to be
    violent?
  • What do you think ?
  • Would you spank/hit your child?

9
The Studies
  • This recent volume by neurologist Jonathan Pincus
    examines social, psychological and neurological
    reasons why certain people commit terrible acts
    of murder.
  • The results of this research, which Pincus
    details in his book, are striking. Of the 150
    people studied, 94 percent had experienced severe
    physical and sexual abuse as children, including
    13 of the 14 who were on death row at time they
    were interviewed.
  • For some years now, it has been possible to
    prove, thanks to the use of new therapeutic
    methods, that repressed traumatic experiences in
    childhood are stored up in the body and, although
    remaining unconscious, exert their influence even
    in adulthood. In addition, electronic testing of
    the fetus has revealed a fact previously unknown
    to most adults a child responds to and learns
    both tenderness and cruelty from the very
    beginning.

10
Who Cares ?
  • People whose integrity has not been
    damaged in childhood, who were protected,
    respected, and treated with honesty by their
    parents, will be--both in their youth and
    adulthood--intelligent, responsive, empathetic,
    and highly sensitive.
  • They will take pleasure in life and
    will not feel any need to hurt others or
    themselves.
  • They will use their power to defend
    themselves but not to attack others
  • They will not be able to do otherwise
    than to respect and protect those weaker than
    themselves, including their children, because
    this is what they have learned from their own
    experience and because it is this knowledge (and
    not the experience of cruelty) that has been
    stored up inside them from the beginning.

11
Peer Relation of abused children
12
General information
  • Attachment theory
  • Why children are not accepted in their peer
    groups
  • Parental role as a consequence
  • Development
  • Consequences of poor peer relation
  • Self-concept

13
Normal Children
  • Parents role
  • Attention
  • attachment
  • Behavior with peers
  • Skills obtained
  • Peer relation

14
Effect of abuse
  • Social outcome
  • Lack of social skills
  • Tend to be aggressive
  • Peer relation
  • disliked
  • Consequences
  • Why it happens
  • effects

15
Other abuse and their
  • Sexual abuse
  • Self-concept
  • Peer relation
  • Neglect
  • Self concept
  • Peer relations

16
What are the consequences of sexual abuse? What
are the effects of child abuse?
  • Depending on the seriousness, the duration and
    the sort of abuse, some of those who were abused
    in their childhood, or recently retain certain
    problems due to this trauma. These can be divided
    into psychological, social, sexual and physical
    problems.
  • Psychological problems
  • Sexual problem
  • Eating disorders
  • Denial and repression
  • Re-experiencing
  • Over irritation

17
Child Abuse and Self-Esteem
18
What is Self-Esteem
  • What is your opinion?
  • Definition Self-esteem is the collection of
    beliefs or feelings that we have about ourselves,
    or our self perceptions. How we define
    ourselves influences our motivations, attitudes
    and behaviors, and affects our emotional
    adjustment.

19
Cont.
  • Signs of a child with healthy self-esteem tends
    to enjoy interacting with others, comfortable in
    social settings, enjoys group and individual
    activities, knows their own strengths and
    weaknesses and accepts them, has a sense of
    optimism
  • Signs of a child with unhealthy self-esteem
    hesitant to try new things, frequently speaks
    negatively about his or herself such as Im
    stupid, gives up easily, tends to be overly
    critical of and easily disappointed in
    themselves, has a sense of pessimism

20
Continue self-esteem
  • Parental involvement is key to helping a child
    form accurate, healthy self-perceptions, and
    self-esteem

21
Sexual Abuse
  • The engagement of a child in sexual activities
    for which the child is developmentally unprepared
    and cannot give informed consent. Child abuse is
    characterized by deception, force or coercion
  • Most children are abused by someone they know and
    trust
  • The child becomes trapped between loyalty or
    affection for the abuser and the sense that the
    sexual activities are terribly wrong.
  • Child sexual abusers can make the child extremely
    fearful of telling about the abuse

22
cont.
  • The long-term emotional and psychological damage
    of sexual abuse can be devastating to the child
  • A child who is victim of prolonged sexual abuse
    usually develops low self-esteem
  • Factors that cause low self-esteem constant
    criticism, a repetitive message that they are
    of little value and just an object to be used
  • Sexual abuse survivors are at a higher risk for
    mental health and social functioning problems

23
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Due to Child Abuse
24
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • What are the characteristics of PTSD?

25
DSM-IV
  • 1. The person has experienced or witnessed a
    traumatic event(s) that elicited intense fear,
    helplessness or horror
  • 2. Persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic
    event such as distressing memories or dreams
    about the event

26
DSM-IV
  • 3. Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated
    with the trauma and numbing of general
    responsiveness and
  • 4. Persistent symptoms of increased arousal such
    as sleep disturbance, irritability or
    difficulties in concentration (American
    Psychiatric Association, 1994).

27
Characteristics In Children
  • sleeplessness
  • inability to get along with others, particularly
    in close relationships
  • paranoia and distrust
  • persistent, intense fear and anxiety
  • feeling easily irritated or agitated
  • having difficulty concentrating
  • feeling numb or detached
  • experiencing intense survivor guilt
  • being preoccupied with the traumatic event
  • physical symptoms such as headaches,
    gastrointestinal distress, or dizziness
  • suicidal thoughts, plans, or gestures

28
Case Studies
29
Deblinger et al. (1989)
  • 29 out of 155 were sexually abused
  • 26 of those sexually abused had PTSD
  • 7 in physically abused children
  • 10 in non-abused group

30
McLeer et al. (1988)
  • Sexual abuse only
  • 31 Children parents surveyed
  • 48 were diagnosed with PTSD

31
McLeer et al. (1998)
  • Sexual abuse only
  • Sample of 80 children
  • 36 were diagnosed with PTSD
  • Often co-morbid with
  • major depression, dysthymia, separation
    anxiety disorder, behavioral disruptive
    disorders

32
Conclusion
  • Any form of child abuse has long term, broad,
    consequences.
  • Preventing abuse is everyones responsibility.
  • Resources for child abuse prevention.
  • B.A.C.A. , Kidpower.org, ChildAbuse/Neglect
    Hotline at (800) 678-9399
  • Google it!
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