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Violence and Abuse


Today: Child, spouse abuse widely studied. ... Source: National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006 ... Experienced abuse as child. External 'locus of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Violence and Abuse

Violence and Abuse
  • Definitions
  • Domestic violence as a public issue
  • Incidence, prevalence, and correlates
  • Male to female violence
  • Child abuse
  • Theories and explanations
  • Treatment and prevention

Violence vs. Abuse
  • An act carried out with the intention of
    physically injuring another person.
    (Richard Gelles)
  • Includes normal and abusive violence
  • Normal commonly accepted, tolerated
  • Abusive high probability of injury
  • Does not include other forms of maltreatment

Abuse as a Public Issue
  • 1641 First law against wife beating enacted in
  • Late 1800's General public concern for children
    child welfare.
  • 1940's X-rays revealed signs of abuse. Medical
    professionals as advocates.
  • 1970's Grassroots movements among abused women.
    Task forces and commissions.
  • Today Child, spouse abuse widely studied. Less
    awareness of hidden violence - elderly,
    siblings, adolescent-to-parent.

Measuring Violence and Abuse
  • Reports to law enforcement
  • Reports by professionals, agencies
  • Victimization surveys
  • Conflict resolution surveys
  • All can produce different definitions, numbers

Incidence and Correlates Male to Female Violence
  • 22 to 26 of U.S. women have been physically
    abused or assaulted by a male intimate
  • 10-14 of wives have been raped by husband
  • Chronic abuse occurs in 13 of marriages
  • 95 of violence is husband-to-wife
  • 54 of college women were sexually victimized by
    dates 15 were raped

Incidence and Correlates Male to Female Violence
  • 1 million intimate murders per year
  • In 2000 over 1700 murders committed by spouses,
    ex-spouses, boyfriends, girlfriends
  • 33 of female murder victims and 4 of male
    victims were killed by an intimate
  • 40 of violent incidents occur on weekends most
    occur near the home.

Incidence and Correlates Male to Female Violence
  • Gelles - Spouse abuse is socially sanctioned
  • Marriage license hitting license
  • Deeply rooted in laws and customs
  • 25 of men agree that it is sometimes OK for a
    man to slap his wife (15 of women)
  • Some states have no laws against marital rape
  • ¾ of date-raped women did not characterize
    experience as rape

Incidence and Correlates Male to Female Violence
  • Higher risk of victimization among
  • Cohabiting women (vs. married)
  • Low income, SES
  • Minority
  • Men who victimize
  • Low self-esteem, use violence to gain control
  • Believe in males authority
  • May have split personality charming, cruel

Incidence and Correlates Male to Female Violence
  • Date rape
  • Most common form of rape
  • Usually spontaneous, opportunistic
  • 79 of women, 71 of men were drinking
  • Involves traditional assumptions
  • No means Yes
  • Drinking sexual availability
  • Cuddling, kissing want to have sex
  • Women exchange sex for his paying for date

Why dont abused women leave?
  • Economic dependence
  • Religious beliefs, sense of duty
  • Children need father
  • Isolation, nowhere to go
  • Want to save marriage
  • Pity, guilt, shame
  • Cultural barriers
  • Fear of retaliation
  • Love

Female to Male Violence
  • May be overlooked, underreported
  • Estimated to be
  • Injuries may be less severe
  • May be self-defense
  • Straus should be taken more seriously
  • Its wrong
  • Danger of escalation
  • Affects children

Maltreatment of Children, 2006
  • Neglect (64.1 of maltreatment cases)
  • Physical Abuse (16)
  • Sexual Abuse (8.8)
  • Emotional Abuse (6.6)
  • Medical Neglect (2.2)
  • Based on case reports/investigations by agencies
  • Does not include normal violence
  • Source National Child Abuse and Neglect Data
    System, 2006

Gelles Studies (1980s) Parent-to-Child Violence
Rate per 1000 children 3-17
Incidence and Correlates Violence Against
  • Characteristics of abusive parents
  • Mothers more than fathers
  • Mother not employed
  • Alcoholic
  • Experienced abuse as child
  • External locus of control
  • Low frustration tolerance
  • Psychological problems (some abusers)
  • Unrealistic expectations (some abusers)

Incidence and Correlates Violence Against
  • Characteristics of abused children
  • Infants, young children
  • Girls more at risk to sexual abuse
  • Disabled, flawed
  • Unhappy, depressed
  • Aggressive
  • External locus of control
  • May become abusive

Theories of Domestic Violence
  • Individual explanations abuser is problem
  • Psychiatric (abuser is sick)
  • Learning (intergenerational transmission)
  • Subcultural (peer subculture)
  • Ecological (damaged environment inadequate
  • Systems (violence achieves system goals)
  • Situational (pile-up of stresses

Theories of Domestic Violence
  • Societal Explanations society is problem
  • Conflict - Interests of family members conflict.
    Violence used to resolve conflicts if other means
    fail. Inequality of power.
  • Resource theory - Traditional roles men control
    resources. Industrialization women move into
    mens roles.

Theories of Domestic Violence Exchange/Control
(Richard Gelles)
  • People hit and abuse family members because they
  • Family is structured for unequal exchange.
  • Unequal exchange discomfort , resentment
  • Family relationships not easily ended.
    Frustration, anger.
  • Inadequate social control frustration, anger
    expressed violently.

Models of response to violence
  • Compassion model - treat abuser, family system,
    or faulty environment.
  • Control model - stop tolerating violence, treat
    abuser as criminal offender. Restructure
    society gender equality, less tolerance for