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Coastal management

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Title: Coastal management


1
Coastal management sustainable aquaculture
development in Croatia
  • Presentation by
  • Dr. Anamarija Frankic
  • Virginia Institute of Marine Science
  • College of William Mary, USA
  • afrankic_at_vims.edu

2
Presentation Topics
  • What is ICZM?
  • Lessons Learned
  • Sustainable Aquaculture Development ICZM

3
ICZM
  • In general, its a interdisciplinary and
    comprehensive strategy or framework based on the
    best available science to be implemented at the
    community level and national level
  • The prime goal is to overcome sectoral and
    intergovernmental fragmentation that exist in
    todays coastal management efforts

4
General concept for integrated coastal zone
management
  • Resource assessment comprehensive inventories of
    coastal natural and human resources (e.g.
    physical and biological data, resource uses,
    cultural heritage, traditional land uses and
    activities, etc.) includes long term in depth
    biocomplexity research studies
  • Impact assessment assessing the coastal zone
    vulnerability to various activity impacts
    interactions between uses and resources a tool
    to help making decisions and evaluate options for
    the mitigation and environmentally sound
    management (e.g. spatial and use conflict
    analysis, GIS models) based on the best
    available knowledge and acknowledging
    uncertainties
  • Policy and regulatory framework a basic tool for
    training and education, and for local community
    participation in decision making process based
    on analysis of existing institutional and legal
    mechanisms develop comprehensive policy framework
    to address coastal issues

5
  • Socio-cultural Economic assessment
    understanding of socio-economic incentives at the
    local level in suggesting alternative
    income-generating programs the simpler the
    national rules the better they are understood and
    followed on the local levels the capacity of the
    community to regulate its own activities and
    uses to enforce local rules is an important
    determinant of perceived management success
  • Implementation how to apply science and develop
    and implement the BMPs? Comprehensive BMPs are
    living documents open to revision, expansion
    provide consistent national standards and
    practices for implementation of aquaculture
  • Monitoring and evaluation assess cumulative
    effects of changes and update management program
    elements to reflect changing needs and
    circumstances multidisciplinary data as a
    feedback loop evaluation of our activities and
    their impacts

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  • Sustainable development of costal areas can be
    achieved through ICZM implementation process
  • However, after 30 years of coastal management
    planning we have not identified simple, effective
    and widely applicable models.
  • And the environmental problems in coastal areas
    have been exacerbated habitat destruction, water
    contamination, coastal erosion and resources
    depletion and socio-economic and cultural
    problems

8
http//www.conservation.org/Marine/map.htm
  • the most biologically valuable areas
  • the most threatened marine areas
  • the most critical areas for marine conservation

9
http//www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/nccr/nccrfs.html
10
Lessons Learned
  • The root cause of this crisis is a failure of
    both perspective governance
  • Oceans coasts are the largest public domain and
    has to be managed holistically for the benefit of
    local communities, recognizing their
    socio-economic and cultural heritage values
  • Involving the local communities in the planning
    and decision-making process
  • Interdependence of land and sea!
  • Increased use conflicts can be managed simply by
    controlling where certain activities are
    undertaken, but sustainability can only be
    attained when environmental conditions are
    appropriate
  • Use suitability and use conflict analysis support
    the interdisciplinary and holistic aspects of
    ICZM planning and indicating where better
    information is needed
  • Balance between the requirements for e.g.
    aquaculture development and the need for resource
    conservation within same management plan should
    be based on environmental limitations!

11
IUCN, 1995. A global representative system of
marine protected areas. Volume 1.
http//www.environment.gov.au/marine/mpa/ (11
of Mediterranean marine ecosystem is protected)
12
Responsible Aquaculture Development in Croatia
13
What does ICZM mean for aquaculture?
  • It means that the only way toward sustainability
    and longevity of aquaculture development is if it
    will have a positive impact on coastal areas and
    adjacent sectors
  • It means that the precautionary principle and
    policy initiatives (e.g. Strategic Environmental
    Assessment Directive) will guide future
    decision-making process

14
Manuscript Content
  • Background on Aquaculture
  • Background on ICZM
  • Adriatic Aquaculture
  • Site Suitability Analysis
  • Attachments Croatian Coasts islands
    Mediterranean lessons Guidelines for Sustainable
    Aquaculture Development in Croatia

15
Aquaculture development has to be advanced in a
manner that is environmentally sustainable
protecting the quality of the environment for
other users, while it is equally important for
society to protect the quality of the environment
for aquaculture. Adherence to both aspects
requires effective and transparent research,
adaptive management, monitoring, enforcement and
incentive. The Government-approved and
industry/stakeholders-led Environmental Codes of
Practice and National Aquaculture Plan will
support this approach through implementation of
the Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
Vision statement
16
Preference should be given to the extensive
monoculture and polyculture practices that
integrate native species of shellfish, seaweed,
urchin, crab, and finfish.
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Aquaculture site suitability analysis
  • Finding suitable sites for aquaculture in the
    marine and coastal environment is one of the most
    critical challenges facing this industry.
  • As an example, five steps of this procedure will
    be presented.

20
Phase One
  • The most important step is to identify the
    environmental conditions necessary for
    aquaculture activities to succeed.
  • Based on extensive literature review and present
    knowledge, the environmental site suitability
    indicators (parameters or criteria) for
    sustainable aquaculture development can be
    identified and derived.

21
Shellfish Aquaculture Protocol Example
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Finfish Aquaculture Protocol Example
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Phase Two
  • Environmental assessment and mapping
    environmental indicators
  • This includes spatial analysis (aerial photos and
    satellite images) and integration of GIS
    coverages (data layers) for temp.,
    salinity,bathymetry, water quality, substrate
    types, benthic biocenoses, slope, hydrology,
    geology-pedology, critical habitats and protected
    species and areas
  • GIS application of available environmental
    suitability indicators from developed aquaculture
    protocols

26
Example of islands site suitability analysis for
aquaculture
Http//seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov
Adriatic Sea and Island Cres
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Phase Three
  • Identification and mapping of coastal, marine and
    land uses
  • Performing the use conflict analysis and GIS
    modeling
  • The goal is to identify areas that, although
    suitable for aquaculture on the basis of
    environmental conditions (phase 2), may be less
    desirable due to incompatible uses that are
    present or planned (tourism, recreation, fishing,
    protection, etc)

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Suitable sites for aquaculture
40
Phase Four
  • Identification of all possible management issues
    that could be caused by or related to aquaculture
    development in certain area
  • Analysis will incorporate socio-economic
    considerations, and each management issue will be
    presented with adequate management options and
    recommendation scenarios

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42
Phase Five
  • Based on all findings prepare action plans for
    aquaculture development and implement them
    through the ICZM
  • Identify all the gaps in existing data that would
    help guide future scientific research, monitoring
    and decision-making process for the long term
    sustainable coastal zone management and
    aquaculture development

43
Marina Site Suitability Indicators
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45
Tourism Site Suitability Indicators
46
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47
Aquaculture in Chesapeake Bay
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50
Example of identified land uses for aquaculture
site suitability analysis (Ch. Bay, Virginia)
(Source VIMS/CCRM, A. Frankic)
51
Site suitability analysis for existing
aquaculture activities for hard clams and oysters
in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (Source VIMS/CCRM,
A. Frankic)
52
Existing aquaculture sites in Virginia (mainly
oysters, h. clams and soft clams) (Source
VIMS/CCRM, A. Frankic)
53
Main Result of this Project Identified suitable
areas for responsible aquaculture development in
Croatia!
54
Summary
  • Develop qualitative and quantitative criteria for
    general aquaculture suitability protocol, and
    develop comprehensive zoning plan that will help
    identify suitable aquaculture sites for the
    Adriatic coast and islands based on the
    international and national environmental
    standards, policies and laws
  • Develop specific aquaculture suitability
    protocols for each type of existing aquaculture
    as well as for future potential species (finfish,
    shellfish, algae, crabs) specifically for
    selected project pilot areas (Velebit Channel and
    Maloston Bay) Prepare EIA for each type of
    aquaculture
  • Identify and map zones for potential aquaculture
    based on developed protocols counties
    spatial/physical plans land use/land cover data
    existing environmental inventories satellite
    images and aerial photography and prepare GIS
    coverages/layers and use IGIS for site
    suitability analysis of data and zoning
  • Develop use conflict analysis, which includes
    identification of current and potential uses and
    IGIS modeling
  • Identify all existing and potential management
    issues develop action plans and management plans
    for each suggested scenarios for potential
    aquaculture development this will be implemented
    through the Integrated Coastal Zone Management
    Plan
  • Identify all the gaps in existing data that would
    help guide future scientific research and
    decision-making process for the long-term
    sustainable coastal zone management.
  • Develop National Plan and Code of Practice
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