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The Ethics of Nanotechnology

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Title: The Ethics of Nanotechnology


1
The Ethics of Nanotechnology
Vikram Jogi
2
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • What is Nanotechnology?
  • Goals of Nanotechnology
  • Potential Benefits
  • Potential Dangers
  • Ethical Issues Analysis
  • Conclusion

3
Article Highlights 
Examining nanotechnology in the light of ethical
decision-making will helpus to answer questions
such as
  • Do we need to create and enforce global laws for
    its development?
  • How do we minimize potential dangers, such as
    weaponry uses?
  • Is it our duty to share research with other
    nations?
  • How can we ensure that technology is used for the
    common good?

4
Introduction
Imagine a world in which
  • cars can be assembled molecule-by-molecule
  • garbage can be disassembled and turned into beef
    steaks, and
  • people can be operated on and healed by
    cell-sized robots

5
Sounds like a science fiction ?
Nanotechnology is the practical everyday
application of a futuristic science so amazing
you may have trouble believing its for real.
But for investors, it is very real.
Well, with current semiconductor chip
manufacturing encroaching upon the nanometer
scale and the ability to move individual atoms
at the IBM Almaden laboratory, we are fast
approaching the technological ability to
fabricate productive machines and devices that
can manipulate things at the atomic level
Laboratories, such as the Stanford
Nanofabrication Facility (SNF), have already been
researching nanofabrication techniques with
applications in fiber optics, biotechnology,
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and wide
variety of other research fields relevant to
today's technology.
6
Cont..
MEMS are already being used in automobile airbag
systems as accelerometers to detect collisions
and will become an increasing part of our
everyday technology.
In 1986, a researcher from MIT named K. Eric
Drexler already foresaw
the advent of molecular machines and published a
book, Engines of Creation, in which he outlined
the possibilities and consequences of this
emerging field, which he called nanotechnology.
K.EricDrexler with a picture of a molecular
machine component in the background.
7
Today
A lot of attention and funds are being channeled
into nano research. nanotechnology research and
development is quite wide spread, although not
high profile yet.
  • Numerous universities
  • U.S. government
  • DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)
  • NSF

With so many resources dedicated to its
development, nanotechnology will surely have an
Impact within our lifetime, so it is important
to examine its ethical implications while it is
still in its infancy.
8
What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology, also called molecular
manufacturing, is "a branch of engineering that
deals with the design and manufacture of
extremely small electronic circuits and
mechanical devices built at the molecular level
of matter."
9
Goals of Nanotechnology
The goal of nanotechnology is to be able to
manipulate materials at the atomic level to
build the smallest possible electromechanical
devices, given the physical limitations of
matter. Much of the mechanical systems we know
how to build will be transferred to the molecular
level as some atomic analogy.
In essence, the purpose of developing
nanotechnology is to have tools to work on the
molecular level analogous to the tools we have
at the macroworld level.
10
Potential Benefits...
  • Just given the basic premises of nanotechnology,
    you can imagine the vast potential
  • of this technology. Some of it's more prominent
    benefits would be
  • Manufacturing
  • Precision Manufacturing
  • Material Reuse
  • Miniaturization
  • Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Creation
  • Disease Treatment
  • Nanomachine-assisted Surgery
  • Environment
  • Toxin Cleanup
  • Recycling
  • Resource Consumption Reduction

Respirocytes with Red Cells.
(by Vik Olliver, 1998)
11
Contd..
Along with all the obvious manufacturing
benefits, there are also many potential medical
and environmental benefits. With nanomachines,
we could better design and synthesize
pharmaceuticals we could directly treat
diseased cells like cancer we could better
monitor the life signs of a patient or we could
use nanomachines to make microscopic repairs in
hard-to-operate-on areas of the body. With regard
to the environment, we could use nanomachines to
clean up toxins or oil spills, recycle all
garbage, and eliminate landfills, thus reducing
our natural resource consumption.
Future Human body
Gastronanorobot
12
Potential dangers
Unfortunately, the technology can be used for
dangerous ends.
The flip side to these benefits is the
possibility of assemblers and disassemblers being
used to create weapons, be used as weapons
themselves, or for them to run wild and wreak
havoc.
  • Weapons
  • Miniature Weapons and Explosives
  • Disassemblers for Military Use
  • Rampant Nanomachines
  • The Gray Goo Scenario
  • Self Replicating Nanomachines
  • Nanoterrorism
  • Surveillance
  • Monitoring
  • Tracking

13
Contd..
  • Weapons
  • extending today's weapon capabilities by
    miniaturizing guns, explosives,
  • and electronic components of missiles would
    be deadly enough
  • Nanomachines and Nanoterrorism
  • There could be a use for nanomachines in
    combating current threats such as bio and
    chemical
  • weapons. In addition, following recent
    events, such as September the 11th, we cannot by
  • any means ignore the threat of global
    terrorism.
  • Gray Goo Disaster
  • with nanotechnology, armies could also
    develop disassemblers to attack physical
    structures
  • or even biological organisms at the
    molecular level. A similar hazard would be if
    general
  • purpose disassemblers got loose in the
    environment and started disassembling every
  • molecule they encountered

14
Ethical Issues Analysis
With such awe full potential dangers inherent in
nanotechnology, we must seriously examine its
potential consequences. We must examine the
ethics of developing nanotechnology and create
policies that will aid in its development so as
to eliminate or at least minimize its damaging
effects on society.
15
  • Professional Issues
  • Legal/Policy Issues
  • Ethical Issues
  • Stakeholders

16
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17
Conclusion
Ethical guidelines are needed to ensure that
nanotechnology is not used for harmful purposes.
18
References
  • http//www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/chen.
    html
  • http//cseserv.engr.scu.edu/StudentWebPages/AChen/
    ResearchPaper.htm
  • http//nanotech-now.com/ethics-of-nanotechnology.h
    tm
  • http//www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk/studentwebs/sess
    ion5/13/weaponhome.htmlnanoterrorism
  • http//people.cornell.edu/pages/bvl1/NanoSEI.htm
  • http//www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/Gallery/Capt
    ions/
  • http//www.expressnews.ualberta.ca/expressnews/art
    icles/ideas.cfm?p_ID5226sa
  • http//www.stt.nl/stt2/projecten/nano/nanolinkstek
    st.htm
  • http//www.nano.org.uk/nano.htm

19
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