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Business Rule Motivation Model

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Business Rule Motivation Model. Work in Progress Report, OMG BEIDTF. Montreal, 23 August 2004. John Hall, Business Rules Group. BRG BRMM - OMG Montreal 23 Aug ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business Rule Motivation Model


1
Business Rule Motivation Model
  • Work in Progress Report, OMG BEIDTF
  • Montreal, 23 August 2004
  • John Hall, Business Rules Group

2
Background
  • Business Rules Group (BRG) published its Business
    Rules Motivation Model (BRMM) in November 2000
  • BRMM used in practice since publication
  • Business Rules and Business Re-engineering
    projects in USA, UK and Switzerland
  • Tool support mainly home-grown (Access, Excel,
    Visio, etc)
  • Partial support (Business Policy Charter) by
    PTech
  • KnowGravity (Zurich) developing implementations
    based on Artisan Real-Time Studio and Cassandra
  • March 2004, BRG invited by OMG BEIDTF to submit
    BRMM for RFC

3
Who is proposing this?
  • Business Rules Group
  • Independent standards group, working on business
    rules since 1993
  • Published Business Rules Motivation Model in 2000
  • Working on vocabulary semantics since 2000
  • Business Rules Team
  • Consortium formed in 2003 to respond to OMG RFP
    for Business Semantics of Business Rules
  • BRG is a member, represented on project board
  • BRG owns BRMM and will submit it to OMG
  • With support of BRT
  • With BRT co-operation for first demonstration of
    integration by adoption

4
Purpose of this presentation
  • Position BRMM relative to other BEIDTF
    developments
  • Organization Structure Metamodel (OSM)
  • Business Process Definition Metamodel (BPDM)
  • Business Semantics of Business Rules (BSBR)
  • Production Rule Representation (PRR)
  • Update BEIDTF on progress towards RFC submission
  • Suggest integration by adoption to BEIDTF as an
    approach for maintaining consistency

5
BRMM as published
defined by
defines
Means
Mission
makes operative
establishes
composed of
Organization Component
planned by means of
established by
part of
Course of Action
component of plan for
makes
recognizes
Strategy
enabled by
drives toward
enables
implemented by
implements
Tactic
formulated based on
formulated to achieve
guided by
guides
impacted by influences expressed in
has achievement supported by
Element of Guidance
related to
the source of
supports achievement of
Business Rule
relates to
subject to
Enforcement Level
impacted by influences expressed in
applies to
derived from
basis for
Business Policy
motivated by
part of
composed of
recognized by
acts as
expresses impact of influence on
expresses impact of influence on
provides impetus for
Influence
a role played by
Assessment
made by
External Influence
Environment
Technology
Regulation
Strength
Weakness
judged in
Supplier
Customer
Competitor
Partner
Opportunity
Threat
a judgment about
evaluated in terms of
Internal Influence
Infrastructure
Issue
Assumption
a characteristic of
Corporate Value
Habit
Resource Quality
Impact Value
Stated
Unstated
Risk
Potential Reward
Management Prerogative
6
Business Rules Motivation Model
  • Published as
  • Also see

Organizing Business Plans The Standard Model
for Business Rule Motivation November
2000 Available from www.businessrulesgroup.org
Business Rules Motivation Model PowerPoint
presentation to BEIDTF at OMG St Louis, April
2004 Available from www.omg.org
7
Audiences
  • Developers of business plans.
  • The BRMM is a conceptual tool for engineering the
    business itself.
  • Analysts supporting the developers of business
    plans.
  • The BRMM is a tool for organizing and clarifying
    business plans.
  • The BRMM is a tool for understanding all the
    forces that influence business planning and their
    impact.
  • Implementers and users of software tools and
    repositories.
  • The BRMM is a model for structuring information
    about such business plans

8
BRMM Content
  • Distinction between being and doing (Ends and
    Means)
  • Distinction between
  • Influences and Assessment of their impact
  • Assessments and reactions (Business Policies and
    specification of Ends)
  • Distinction between Courses of Action and
    Guidance
  • Decomposition Ends, Means, Guidance
  • Associations between the elements

9
BRMM - major areas
Means
End
What you want your business to be
Courses of Action
What you decide your business needs to do
Arrows indicate direction of major drives
Elements of Guidance
Influence
Assessment
…of influences
What may affect your business
10
BRMM and other OMG standards
  • Organization Structure Metamodel (OSM)
  • Integration by adoption
  • Business Semantics of Business Rules (BSBR)
  • Business Process Definition Metamodel (BPDM)
  • Production Rule Representation (PRR)

11
Organization Structure Metamodel (OSM)
defines
End
Means
Organization Component
establishes
Strategy
determines
Assessment
makes
recognizes
Influence
Organization Component is a placeholder in BRMM -
not defined in any detail We expect a good
specification to be developed in OSM and would
like to use it as the authoritative version. This
is an example of Integration by Adoption.
12
Integration by Adoption
  • Some concepts, including Business Policy,
    Business Process, Business Rule and Organization
    Component
  • are common to several BEIDTF developments
  • should have the same definitions across all of
    them
  • We suggest that they each be defined once in an
    owner standard, and adopted by other standards
    as users
  • The benefits would be consistency across
    standards and reduction of replication
  • The implication would be that when an owner
    standard is revised, all the users have to be
    considered - this would be a good thing!
  • Concepts can also be adopted from outside the
    OMG, e.g. BSBR adopts from ISO, standard
    dictionaries, etc.

13
BRMM and BSBR
Means
Course of Action
formulated based on
guided by
guides
Element of Guidance
related to
We wish to adopt from BSBR
Business Rule
relates to
derived from
the source of
basis for
BRT has agreed to adopt - we will suggest to
other BSBR submitters that they consider it
Business Policy
part of
composed of
Example of bi-directional adoption
(cross-adoption)
14
Business Process
  • BRMM supports two areas of decision-making that
    are important to Business Process Definition
  • Ends (Vision, Goals, Objectives) - where you want
    your business processes to take your business
  • Business Policies - the boundaries you set on the
    kinds of activity your business processes will
    and can do
  • They are determined by decision makers in the
    business, based on Assessments of Influences on
    the business.
  • When Business Processes are defined
  • They validate and prove Business Policies
  • They realize the Courses of Action (Strategies
    and Tactics) - i.e they put the courses of action
    into practice
  • They provide the processing context for
    application of Business Rules - or (from the BPDM
    perspective) Business Rules provide detail to
    support Business Processes

15
BRMM and BPDM
Means
Course of Action
delivered by
formulated based on
guided by
guides
Element of Guidance
realizes
the source of
Business Process
Business Rule
supports
supports
derived from
shaped by
basis for
Business Policy
drives
We wish to adopt from BPDM
We will suggest to BPDM submitters that they
could adopt from BRMM
16
Proposed Changes to BRMM for OMG
  • Element of Guidance (part of Means)
  • Replace BRMM Business Rule with adoption of
    Business Rule from BSBR
  • Organization Component (currently a placeholder)
  • Adopt Organization Component (or nearest
    equivalent) from Organization Structure Metamodel
    (OSM)
  • Add new association Strategy determines
    Organization Component
  • Business Process (new)
  • Adopt Business Process from Business Process
    Definition Metamodel (BPDM)
  • Add new associations between Business Process and
    Element of Guidance, Course of Action, and
    Organization Component
  • Under consideration
  • Element of Guidance rename as Element of
    Governance
  • Assessment higher profile for Risk and risk
    management

17
Proposed Changes to BRMM
defined by
defines
to be adopted from OSM
Means
End
made operative by
Mission
Vision
makes operative
composed of
Organization Component
establishes
responsible for
part of
composed of
planned by means of
amplified by
established by
part of
Course of Action
Desired Result
amplifies
component of plan for
to be adopted from BPDM
recognizes
defined by
Strategy
Goal
determines
enabled by
Business Process
enables
realizes
implemented by
quantified by
implements
quantifies
formulated to achieve
Tactic
Objective
formulated based on
makes
achieved by
supports
shaped by
guided by
guides
source of
impacted by influences expressed in
has achievement supported by
Element of Guidance
related to
supports achievement of
Business Rule
relates to
to be adopted from BSBR
impacted by influences expressed in
supports
Enforcement Level
derived from
basis for
applies to
Business Policy
proposed for adoption into BSBR and BPDM
motivated by
expresses impact of influence on
expresses impact of influence on
part of
provides impetus for
drives
composed of
Assessment
acts as
recognized by
Strength
Weakness
made by
Opportunity
Threat
judged in
Influence
a role played by
a judgment about
External Influence
evaluated in terms of
Regulation
Others as in published version
a characteristic of
under discussion
Impact Value
Risk
Potential Reward
18
Consequent changes - suggested
  • BSBR (to be agreed with submitters)
  • Adopt Business Policy from BRMM (recommended)
  • Adopt Business Process from BPDM (to be
    discussed)
  • BPDM (to be proposed to submitters)
  • Adopt Business Policy from BRMM
  • Adopt Business Rule from BSBR
  • note there is already a hook in the draft
    submission
  • OSM (to be proposed to submitters, if relevant)
  • Adopt Business Policy from BRMM
  • Adopt Business Process from BPDM
  • PRR not known - initial submissions not yet made

19
Business Policy - what would be adopted?
  • Business Policy - explicit guidance that
  • Directs or constrains the Business Processes,
    Strategies and Tactics of an enterprise
  • Provides the basis for Business Rules
  • Is not directly actionable (see notes)
  • Examples (EU-Rent)
  • Rental contracts are made under the law of the
    country in which the pick-up branch is located
  • Rentals must comply with relevant laws and
    regulations of all countries to be visited
  • Depreciation of rental cars must be minimized
  • Notes
  • Compared to a Business Rule, a Business Policy
    tends to be less structured, less discrete, and
    usually not atomic that is, not focused on a
    single aspect of guidance. Its articulation may
    be less formal than that for a Business Rule.
  • Business Policies provide broader guidance that
    is not directly actionable. Business Rules
    provide specific, actionable guidance to
    implement Business Policies.
  • Actionable means that a person who understands
    a Business Rule could observe a relevant
    situation (including his or her own behavior) and
    decide directly whether or not the business was
    complying with the rule.
  • Some Business Rules could be automated in
    software some are actionable only by people.
    Business Policies are not directly automatable.

20
EU-Rent - a business policy
  • Premium car rental companies such as Hertz and
    Avis have a high quality, value for money
    image. Customers generally accept that their
    rates will be higher than the cheap and
    cheerful competition (an Influence)
  • Customers tend to see on-airport companies as
    premium and off-airport as cheap and cheerful
    (an Assessment)
  • EU-Rent thinks that there is room for competition
    in the premium market (an Assessment)
  • EU-Rent wants to be a premium car rental company
    (a Goal)
  • To achieve this, EU-Rent decides to be
    nation-wide in each of its countries of
    operation, focusing on major airports (a
    Strategy) and to compete head-to-head,
    on-airport, with other premium car rental
    companies (a Strategy)
  • A problem for on-airport car rental companies is
    that all the competitors offer similar types of
    car, and are physically lined up in a row (an
    Influence). There is almost no room for manoeuvre
    on product, service or price (an Assessment)
  • A critical factor in financial success is the
    depreciation on cars their purchase, new, and
    their sale at the end of their rental life (an
    Assessment). In response to this, EU-Rent decides
    that depreciation of cars must be minimised (a
    Business Policy). It will go on to develop some
    courses of action and business rules to support
    this policy (see next slide)
  • Note the above could mean that (in terms of
    financial performance), the premium car rental
    companies are really in the used-car business,
    and that car rental is just the front-end feed -
    but we wont go there today …

21
Business Policy Examples - EU-Rent
Business Policy (broad guidance)
Business Rule (specific guidance)
Course of Action (what has to be done)
Equalize use of cars across rentals
Depreciation of cars must be minimized
The Car assigned to a Rental must be the one with
the lowest mileage of the available Cars in the
requested Car Group at the time of assignment
Comply with manufacturers maintenance schedule
Depreciation of cars must be minimized
A Rental cannot be extended by phone if the Cars
odometer reading is within 500 miles of its next
service mileage (the Customer must bring it in
for a change of car)
Accept payment only by major credit card
Rental payments must be guaranteed in advance
A provisional charge for the estimated cost of
the Rental must be made against a valid credit
card held by the Renter before the Car is handed
over
Return cars dropped off out of country to their
country of registration, although not necessarily
the branch of origin in that country
Rental cars must not be exported
An out of country car can be rented only on a
one-way rental with drop-off at branch in in its
country of registration
22
How OMG standards might be linked
Organization Structure Metamodel (OSM)
adoption
adoption
Business Rules Motivation Model (BRMM)
Business Process Definition Metamodel (BPDM)
adoption
Organization Component
Business Rule
Business Policy
Business Process
Organization Component
Business Rule
adoption
adoption
adoption
adoption
adoption
transformation
Business Semantics of Business Rules (BSBR)
Production Rules Representation (maybe some
adoption - dont know enough yet)
Business Policy
Business Process
transformation
23
BRMM - towards RFC submission
  • Proposed changes as described so far
  • Cross-adoption of shared concepts with OSM, BSBR,
    BPDM
  • Revised edition of paper to be published on BRG
    web site
  • UML model
  • Structure created in Artisan Visual Studio
  • Full detail (as in BRG paper) currently being
    built up
  • MOF/XMI
  • Currently in trials with Artisan/Cassandra for
    transfer to Adaptive
  • Since BRMM is a Vocabulary Rules, we intend
    also to generate using the BSBR technology, as an
    additional BSBR demonstration
  • Supporting Tools
  • Proof of concept tool being developed by
    KnowGravity (Zurich)
  • Aiming for submission in Nov 2004

24
BRMM - UML Model
Note does not yet show proposed changes
25
Summary
  • High-level metamodel, providing context for more
    detailed models
  • Small set of essential concepts
  • It took the BRG several years to distil this set
    from industry practice
  • The model is relatively simple compared with,
    say, BSBR and BPDM (so might be easier to
    accept?)
  • An important role is providing standard
    vocabulary (even if some businesses choose,
    internally, to use different terms for some
    concepts)
  • Content is well-established - most of the work
    needed is to meet OMG requirements for submission
  • Some updates needed - mainly to ensure
    consistency with other OMG MDA standards for
    business-level modeling
  • Integration by adoption would provide a useful
    way to integrate with related OMG standards - but
    is not vital for acceptance of BRMM
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