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Physical Phenomena

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Phenomena Created Due to Osmosis. Turgor Pressure ... reverse pinocytosis = reverse phagocytosis. Endocytosis in animal cells. VII. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Phenomena


1
Physical Phenomena
  • Nancy G. Morris
  • Volunteer State Community College

2
I. General Definitions
  • INTRACELLULAR
  • within a cells protoplasm
  • internal activity
  • INTERCELLULAR
  • activities occurring between two or more cells
  • EXTRACELLULAR
  • outside the cell
  • activities occurring outside the cells
    protoplasm

3
I. General Definitions
  • SOLVENT
  • liquid capable of dissolving a solute
  • SOLUTE
  • the dissolved substance
  • SOLUTION
  • the mixture of solute and solvent

4
I. General Definitions
  • DIFFUSION
  • movement of substances from where they are more
    concentrated to where they are less concentrated
  • diffusion is dependent on
  • 1. temperature
  • 2. size of diffusing molecule
  • 3. concentration
  • the greater the difference in concentration
    (concentration gradient) the more rapidly
    diffusion occurs

5
I. General Definitions
  • DIALYSIS
  • diffusion of substances through a semipermeable
    membrane
  • requires a concentration gradient

6
I. General Definitions
  • OSMOSIS
  • diffusion of water through a semipermeable
    membrane
  • OSMOTIC PRESSURE
  • pressure required to stop osmotic movement of
    water into a solution
  • a measure of osmotic potential
  • OSMOTIC POTENTIAL
  • tendency for water to move across a semipermeable
    membrane into a solution
  • the greater the concentration, the greater the
    osmotic pressure of the solution

7
Osmosis
8
I. General Definitions
  • CAPILLARITY
  • the adhesion of a liquid and a solid
  • the attraction of a liquid to a solid surface
  • ADSORPTION
  • the adhesion of one substance to another

9
II. The Process of Diffusion
10
III. Comparisions of Solutions
  • HYPERTONIC
  • solution which is higher in solute concentration
    when compared to another solution
  • ISOTONIC
  • solution which is same in solute concentration
    when compared to another solution
  • HYPOTONIC
  • solution which is lower in solute concentration
    when compared to another solution

11
Water balance of cells
12
IV. Phenomena Created Due to Osmosis
  • Turgor Pressure
  • internal pressure exerted on the cell wall by
    the cells contents
  • Plasmolysis
  • shrinking of a cells cytoplasm due to a
    hypertonic environment
  • Crenation
  • plasmolysis of a red blood cell (erythrocyte)
  • Hemolysis
  • rupture of a red blood cell due to a hypotonic
    environment

13
V. Brownian Movement
  • Visible movement of particles in a solution due
    to collisions between molecules
  • helps to distribute substances within a cell or
    system

14
VI. How materials enter and leave cells
  • PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  • directional movement of substances due to
    concentration gradient
  • simple dialysis
  • no energy is expended

15
VI. How materials enter and leave cells
  • FACILITATED TRANSPORT
  • passive transport aided by a carrier molecule
    such as a permease enzyme
  • no energy is expended

16
One model for Facilitated Transport
17
VI. How materials enter and leave cells
  • ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  • movement of substances across the cell
    membrane against the concentration gradient
  • often enzymatic
  • revolving door - molecules are picked up
    outside and revolved through the membrane and
    released on the opposite side
  • REQUIRES ENERGY

18
Comparison of Active and Passive Transport
19
8.16 A special type of Active Transport
Cotransport
20
VI. How materials enter and leave cells
  • ENDOCYTOSIS
  • endo within
  • cyto cell
  • sis process
  • pinocytosis
  • cell drinking
  • phagocytosis
  • cell eating

21
VI. How materials enter and leave cells
  • EXOCYTOSIS
  • exo external
  • cyto cell
  • sis process
  • reverse pinocytosis
  • reverse phagocytosis

22
Endocytosis in animal cells
23
VII. The Physical Nature of Protoplasm
  • Colloid
  • Sol-gel transformation
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