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Chapter 6 The Police: Role and Function

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The Police: Role and Function. Police Organization ... Undercover/Sting Operations. Police deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6 The Police: Role and Function


1
Chapter 6The Police Role and Function
2
Police Organization
  • Most municipal police departments are independent
    agencies within the executive branch of
    government.
  • Most departments follow military model adhering
    to rigid chain of command.
  • Personnel decisions often based on time-in-rank
    considerations.

3
The Police Role
  • Crime fighting efforts are only a small part of
    the police officers overall activities.
  • On average a police officer makes less than 2
    arrest per month and less than 1 felony arrest
    every four months.
  • Majority of time spent handling minor
    disturbances, service calls, and administrative
    duties.

4
The Patrol Function
  • Account for 2/3 of most departments personnel
  • Deter crime through visible presence
  • Maintain public order
  • Respond to law violations or emergencies
  • Identify and apprehend criminals
  • Aid citizens in distress
  • Facilitate movement of people and traffic
  • Create a sense of safety and security

5
The Patrol Function (cont.)
  • Patrol Activities
  • Majority of efforts devoted to order maintenance
    or peacekeeping.
  • Requires officers to use discretion and resolve
    situations without making an arrest.
  • Use of selective enforcement

6
The Patrol Function (cont.)
  • Deterrent Effect of Patrol
  • Kansas City Police Preventive Patrol Experiment
    showed random patrol has little effect on crime.
  • Patrol methods seems to have little affect on
    publics attitude toward police.

7
The Patrol Function (cont.)
  • Proactive Patrol
  • Department emphasizes stopping crimes before they
    occur rather than traditional reactive approach.
  • Aggressive enforcement is used to create belief
    that criminals stand a significant risk of being
    caught.
  • Special programs may target specific crimes.

8
The Patrol Function (cont.)
  • Targeting Crimes
  • Department emphasizes stopping crimes before they
    occur rather than traditional reactive approach.
  • Aggressive enforcement is used to create belief
    that criminals stand a significant risk of being
    caught.
  • New York experience

9
The Patrol Function (cont.)
  • Adding Patrol Officers
  • Research indicates adding police officers may in
    fact reduce crime and improve overall
    effectiveness of the justice system.
  • Agencies with more officers per capita than the
    norm experience lower levels of violent crimes.

10
The Patrol Function (cont.)
  • Compstat Program
  • Computer program provides real-time crime
    analysis capabilities for local commanders.
  • Commanders required to justify police deployments
    and strategies based on crime trends.

11
The Investigation Function
  • Detective investigate the causes of crime and
    attempt to identify the individuals or groups
    responsible for committing particular offenses.
  • Undercover/Sting Operations
  • Police deceive criminals into openly committing
    illegal acts.
  • Common in investigation of prostitution,
    gambling, and narcotics
  • Critics argue constitutes entrapment or may be
    encouraging commission of additional offenses

12
The Investigation Function (cont.)
  • Evaluating Investigations
  • Most arrests are made by patrol officers.
  • One study indicates half of all detectives could
    be replaced without negatively influencing crime
    clearance rates.
  • Police have only a 5 percent chance to solve a
    crime if more than 15 minutes elapse from the
    time of occurrence to reporting.
  • Detectives generally lack sufficient resources to
    carryout lengthy probes of any but the most
    serious crimes.

13
The Investigation Function (cont.)
  • Improving Investigations
  • Use of patrol officers for preliminary
    investigations to free up time for detectives
  • Increased use of specialization
  • Greater reliance on technology

14
Community Policing
  • Police-community relations programs were
    developed to improve relations with the community
    and develop cooperation with citizens with the
    goals of
  • Explain police activities
  • Teach self-protection methods
  • Improve general attitudes toward policing
  • Original programs developed at station-house and
    departmental levels.

15
Community Policing (cont.)
  • Broken Windows Model
  • Primary function of police should be community
    preservation, public safety, and order
    maintenance.
  • Neighborhood disorder creates fear.
  • Neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals.
  • To be effective police need citizen cooperation.

16
Community Policing (cont.)
  • Implementing Community Policing
  • New Jersey and Michigan foot patrol experiments
  • Creation of the Office of Community Oriented
    Policing Services (COPS)
  • Neighborhood-oriented policing

17
Community Policing (cont.)
  • Problem-Oriented Policing
  • Form of proactive policing
  • Identify long-term community problems and develop
    strategies to eliminate them
  • Relies on assistance of local residents to
    identify and resolve problems
  • Specialized units may concentrate on hot spots
    where significant portion of calls originate

18
Community Policing (cont.)
  • Challenges of Community Policing
  • Must define community
  • Define roles
  • Change command structure
  • Re-orient police values
  • Revise training
  • Reorient recruitment

19
The Changing Concepts of Policing (cont.)
  • Support Functions
  • Personnel services
  • Internal affairs
  • Budgeting
  • Data management
  • Dispatch
  • Forensic laboratories
  • Planning and research
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