Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Grassroots Enterprise Development in Darfur and Southern Sudan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Grassroots Enterprise Development in Darfur and Southern Sudan

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Title: Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Grassroots Enterprise Development in Darfur and Southern Sudan


1
Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Grassroots
Enterprise Development in Darfur and Southern
Sudan
Samer Abdelnour, Research Associate, York
University Dr. Susan McGrath, Director Centre
for Refugee Studies, York University Dr. Babiker
Badri, Ahfad University for Women Dr. Oana
Branzei, Schulich School of Business, York
University Dr. David Wheeler, Dean Faculty of
Management, Dalhousie University
2
Presentation Overview
  • Project Introduction Overview
  • Who, Why, What and When
  • Preliminary Fieldwork

3
Who - A Collaborative Project
  • Sudanese Universities
  • Canadian Universities
  • Sudanese Public, Private and Civil Society
    Institutions
  • Bilateral and Multilateral Institutions
  • Current Funding
  • Foreign Affairs Canada
  • International Development Research Centre

4
Why Entrepreneurship in Post-Conflict Situations
  • Conflict is lucrative
  • Glinkina Rosenberg (2003)
  • Insecurity devastates legitimate entrepreneurs
    but promotes predatory entrepreneurship
  • Dana France (1996) Reyntjens (2005)
  • Hardship and insecurity can forge resilient
    entrepreneurship especially among women
  • Ayadurai Sohail (2006) Honig (2001) Ruzibuka
    (2001 2005) Thakur (1998)

5
Why Sudan?
  • War between the Northern GoS
  • and SPLA/M opposition lasted from
  • 1955-1972 and 1983-2005
  • (Comprehensive Peace)
  • In Darfur, years of tensions over land and
    grazing
  • rights (nomads vs. farmers) exploded into
    conflict
  • in 2003 when opposition groups attacked GoS
  • targets claiming neglect the GoS response and
  • permissions for banditry have deepened the crisis
  • Combined, these conflicts have created over six
  • million IDPs, 600,000 Sudanese refugees, and
  • over two million dead

6
What - Description of Project
  • To observe and stimulate experiments in
    self-reliant sustainable approaches to local
    economic development in post-conflict Sudan
  • Recognition that endogenous resources (human,
    social, ecological and economic assets) drive
    sustainability at least as much as exogenous
    investments
  • Wheeler et al, 2005
  • Improve understanding of what works through
    participative action research and grounded
    methods.
  • Chambers (1992) Goodhand Hulme (1999) Peredo
    Chrisman (2006)

7
The Sustainable Local Enterprise Network Model
8
Participatory Action Research Methodology
  • Work directly with the people affected
  • Share experiences
  • Discover what factors will favour social
    reconstruction and replication of self-reliance
    via the creation of sustainable livelihoods and
    grassroots enterprise development

9
When - Project Timeline
  • Phase 1
  • Project development and initial fieldwork
    (2005/2006)
  • Phase 2
  • High-level forum and project development (2007)
  • Phase 3
  • Project implementation and follow-up research
    activities (2007-2010)

10
The Fieldwork
  • The objectives of the fieldwork include
  • The identification pre- and post-war livelihood
    strategies of IDPs
  • To identify livelihoods IDPs want to undertake
    upon return
  • Assess available skills and capacity for the
    development of enterprise
  • Determine constraints hindering access to desired
    strategies

11
Sources
  • South Sudan
  • GoSS, INGOs, UN, Finance Sector
  • IDP camps Juba (Lubonok), Malakal (Obel), Rumbek
    (Akot, Pulshulme)
  • Darfur
  • INGOs
  • IDP camps El-Fashir (Abu Shoke, Zemzem), Nyala
    (El-Sarif)
  • Khartoum
  • GoS, Private Sector
  • IDP camps Wad Al-Bashir, Mandela, Dar Es Salaam

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Encouraging Themes South Sudan
  • Wealth of natural resources
  • Strong desire for post-war development
  • Encouragement for the return of residents and
    IDPs by both the GoS and GoSS with assistance
    from UNHCR
  • Existing enterprise capacities
  • Financial sector
  • Enterprise/market activity
  • Engagement of local private sector

15
Encouraging Themes Darfur
  • Entrepreneurial spirit
  • Existing skills
  • Understanding of enterprise enablers (i.e.
    credit)
  • Strong desire for self-reliance
  • Existence and participation in IDP camp markets

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