Brain Basics and Beyond: How to Engage Young Adolescents - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Brain Basics and Beyond: How to Engage Young Adolescents PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1d62a-ZWFiZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Brain Basics and Beyond: How to Engage Young Adolescents

Description:

... relationship between recent brain research and effective instruction ... People are either right-brained or left-brained which explains their natural abilities ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:302
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: ValuedGate1487
Learn more at: http://web.pdx.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Brain Basics and Beyond: How to Engage Young Adolescents


1
Brain Basics and Beyond How to Engage Young
Adolescents
  • Micki M. Caskey
  • Barbara Ruben
  • Lorraine Morgan
  • NMSA Conference
  • November 1, 2002

2
Advance Organizer
  • Examine the relationship between recent brain
    research and effective instruction
  • Identify teaching practices that promote learning
  • Describe environmental conditions that facilitate
    learning
  • Explore ideas to create enriched classroom
    environments
  • Exchange practices to stimulate brain development
    in young adolescents

3
People have been fascinated by the brain and how
it works
Historical explanations
  • Aristotle The heart was the center of the
    intellect (4th century BC)
  • Descartes Fluids in ventricles controlled motor
    activity, but human mental activities existed
    outside the brain in the mind (1662)
  • Gall Bumps on the head explained
    characteristics (1758)

Adapted from Pat Wolfe, 2001
4
Brain Research In the Media
5
Modern Myths
  • People only use 10 of their brain
  • People are either right-brained or left-brained
    which explains their natural abilities
  • Everything people have ever experienced is stored
    somewhere in their brain
  • At birth people have all the neurons that they
    will ever have

Adapted from Pat Wolfe, 2001
6
Brain Research
  • Describe the human brain and how it functions
  • Use findings to inform our practice and
    educational policy
  • Keep in mind that no specific studies connect
    brain function and educational practice
    (Davis, 2000/01)

7
Human Brain
  • About 3 pounds
  • 78 water, 10 fat, 8 protein
  • Less than 2.5 of bodys weight
  • Uses 20 of bodys energy

8
Amazing Brain Numbers
  • 100 billion neurons
  • 1 trillion glial cells
  • 1,000 trillion synaptic connection points
  • 280 quintillion memories

9
The nerve cell, or neuron resembles a miniature
tree (p. 21)
Diamond Hopson, 1998
10
Brain is modified by environment
  • Dendrites can grow at any age
  • Synaptic connections occur at any age easier
    earlier in life
  • Brain is adaptable
  • Plasticity
  • Use it or Lose it

11
Synaptic Density
6 year old
2 year old
Diamond Hopson, 1998
 
12
Myelination
  • A fatty substance that coats the axon and speeds
    electrical impulses
  • Coating of myelin is not complete until about age
    20

13
PET Scan Imaging
Positron Emission Tomography
14
PET BrainScan
15
fMRI
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
16
Effective Instruction Research
  • Teach for understanding (D. Perkins)
  • Understanding by design uncoverage (G. Wiggins
    and J. Tighe)
  • Non-threatening, emotionally safe learning
    environments (R. Sylwester)
  • Integration of curriculum (J. Beane, H. H.
    Jacobs, S. Kovalik)
  • Multiple intelligences (H. Gardner)
  • Differentiated curriculum instruction (C.
    Tomlinson)

17
Memory Processes
18
Memory Processes
19
Engaging the Brain
  • Attention
  • The brain is much more like a sieve than a
    sponge (Sousa, 1995)
  • Approximately 99 of all information entering
    through the senses is dropped (Wolfe, 2001)
  • Factors that influence attention are meaning and
    emotion

20
Meaning
  • Ways to make information meaningful
  • Anchor new information to previous experience
  • Create a new experience

21
Brain Structures are impacted when environments
  • Are learner centered
  • Focus on making meaning
  • Connect what is being learned to what is already
    known

22
Emotion
  • Ways to get learner attention
  • Create an emotional hook
  • Provide appropriate level of intensity

23
(No Transcript)
24
MRIs reveal the Adolescent Brain
Parietal lobes, seat of visual/spatial ability,
lose gray matter through age 16
Frontal lobes, which control planning and
judgment, are still immature
Subcortical regions change, perhaps as habits are
laid down
In the frontal lobes, unused circuits get pruned
into the 20s
25
Adapted from Pat Wolfe, 2001
26
Myelination and emotional maturity
  • Coating of myelin is not complete until about age
    20
  • Areas of the brain that regulate emotion,
    judgment, and impulse control myelinate during
    adolescence
  • Myelination occurs earlier in girls than boys
  • This is why teenage girls seem more
    emotionally mature than boys

27
(No Transcript)
28
Adolescent Brain
  • Solidifying circuitry
  • Used synaptic connections strengthened
  • Natural pruning process
  • Pruning of unused connections
  • Most of the pruning occurs between
    10-16 years
  • Synaptic density reduced

29
Shore, R. 1997
 
30
  • Substance Abuse
  • Smoking
  • Drinking
  • Abusing drugs
  • have dramatic and erosive effects on the
    adolescent brain

31
  • Enrichment improves branching and growth of
    dendrites
  • Enrichment strengthens synaptic connections
  • Enrichment has positive effects on the adolescent
    brain

32
Teaching Practices that Support Young
Adolescents
33
Meet the intellectual, social, emotional, and
physical developmental needs of young adolescents
  • Demonstrate individual support for all students
  • Encourage and employ collaborative learning
  • Heighten student awareness about benefits of
    nutrition, sleep, and fitness
  • Emphasize the importance of water for
    electrolytic balance and hydration
  • Create opportunities for paired learning and peer
    sharing
  • Provide experiences that target student interests
    and concerns

34
Create atmosphere that is high in challenge and
low in threat
  • Tap prior knowledge to construct meaning
  • Employ scaffolding strategies
  • Teach study skills and learning how to learn
  • Utilize both inductive and deductive reasoning
  • Afford all students adequate processing time

35
Emphasize an active approach to instructional
practice
  • Provide choice of topics, ways of learning, and
    modes of expression
  • Feature hands-on and touchable learning
    situations
  • Increase motor activity, lab experiences, arts,
    music, and drama
  • Build and nurture curiosity
  • Offer opportunities for self-assessment and
    reflection
  • Give frequent and elaborative feedback

36
Adopt curricular models that support best
practice
  • Seek patterns, relationships, and connections
    among the disciplines
  • Reveal interconnectedness of concepts across
    multiple contexts
  • Select essential concepts to investigate and
    explore deeply
  • Plan and implement integrated units of study
  • Use project-based learning that connects
    students effort with real life
  • Infuse the arts across the curriculum to build
    and extend meaning

37
Middle Level Classroom Practices that Promote
Learning
  • Project-based and Authentic Learning
    Opportunities
  • Simulations and Role Plays
  • Debates and Learner Discourse
  • Learning Strategies and Strategic Instruction
  • Advance and Post organizers
  • Frequent checks for understanding
  • Elaboration and feedback

38
Middle Level Classroom Practices that Promote
Learning
  • Content Enhancements
  • Storytelling
  • Drawing
  • Music
  • Mnemonics
  • Concept maps mind mapping

39
School-wide Actions that Support Young
Adolescents
40
Ensure a safe learning environment
  • Create positive, inclusive classrooms
  • Minimize unproductive stress
  • Stop unhealthy or disruptive behaviors within the
    school context
  • Address issues of bullying, violence, harassment,
    and substance abuse
  • Rehearse responses to emergency or crisis
    situations
  • Promote and practice empathetic behavior
  • Foster and model cultural competence

41
Seek productive interactions with the community
  • Extend and apply knowledge and skills learned in
    the classroom
  • Develop civic and social responsibility
  • Form alliances with others who share similar
    interests
  • Engage in thoughtful social discourse in novel
    settings
  • Pursue authentic service learning activities
  • Explore continuing education options or career
    choices
About PowerShow.com