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Digital Video Creation

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The Audio and Visual information is handled by a separate audio and video codec. These codecs need to be installed any computer that will view the video ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digital Video Creation


1
Digital Video Creation
  • Paul Browne

2
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Digital Video Formats
  • Capturing
  • Digital Video Editing
  • Streaming
  • DVD-Video Creation

3
Introduction
  • Video contains
  • Frames
  • Audio
  • Video can be stored in Analog or Digital formats
  • VHS Video is stored in Analog format
  • DVD Video is stored in Digital format
  • Frame rate
  • Number of frames/ images shown per second (fps)
  • Low frame rate will have unnatural motion like
    early cinema
  • Natural motion needs to be 20 fps or more
  • Cinema Film 24 fps, TV PAL 25fps, TV NTSC
    30fps (USA, Japan)
  • Video can have large space requirements so
    compression is essential

4
Introduction
  • Video and Audio Compression/ decompression
    methods are called CODECS
  • The Audio and Visual information is handled by a
    separate audio and video codec
  • These codecs need to be installed any computer
    that will view the video
  • Many are installed by default or with media
    player but some might need be installed
    separately.
  • Many video formats are actually wrappers that
    handle the synching of audio and video
  • They offer the facility to use numerous codecs
    for audio and visual for compression/
    decompression .
  • .AVI and .MOV files are good examples of this.

5
File Sizes
  • File Sizes
  • 1 bit 0 or 1 (Binary)
  • 1 byte 8 bits (00100110)
  • 1 Kilobyte 1024 bytes
  • 1 Megabyte 1024 kilobytes
  • 1 Gigabyte 1024 Megabytes
  • 1 Terabyte 1024 Gigabytes
  • Typical Bitrates
  • CD Audio 1.3 Mbps
  • mp3 audio (CD quality) 96-320 Kbps
  • Compressed Video 150 Kbps - 6
    Mbps Uncompressed Video 31 Mbps
  • Digital Photo (4 Megapixel quality) 1 Megabyte

Capacities Floppy Disk 1.4 Megabytes CD-ROM
650 Megabytes DVD 4.5 Gigabytes Typical Har
d Drive
80-250 Gigabytes
Kbps kilobits per second Mbps Megabits per se
cond
6
Bandwidth
  • Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be
    sent/received per second
  • This is important for streaming digital
    audio/video as they will be encoded at a specific
    bitrate per second.
  • Higher quality Digital Video (high bitrate) needs
    higher bandwidth
  • Compressed Video at 250 Kbps needs a bandwidth of
    at least 250 Kbps. In practice it will need to be
    more to cover network traffic.
  • Common bandwidth restrictions
  • Mobile Phone (GPRS Date) 26.8 kbps
  • Mobile Phone (Voice) 9.6 kbps
  • Computer Modem 56 kbps
  • ADSL (Broadband) 256 kbps
  • Ethernet Network 100 Mbps

7
  • Digital Video Formats

8
MPEG Digital Video Formats
  • MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group)
  • Formed to create an interoperable standard for
    digital video. Lots of different companies and
    research groups participate.
  • The results from MPEG work can be found in DVDs
    and Digital Satellite television.
  • MPEG-1 Allows VHS quality digital video (VCD)
  • MPEG-2 Digital TV and DVD
  • MPEG-4 Digital Video over the Internet and
    Networks
  • MPEG-7 Video Content descriptor layer only

9
Popular Digital Video Formats
  • Microsoft
  • .AVI (interoperable standard), WMV
  • Apple
  • .MOV (interoperable standard), .QT (QuickTime)
  • RealNetworks
  • .ra , .rm , .ram
  • DivX
  • Based on advanced MPEG-4 compression
  • Audio requires a separate codec (typically mp3)
  • Has .avi compatible format
  • MiniDV
  • Compression used in MiniDV camcorders (bitrate
    31.2 Mbps)
  • 1 minute 219 Meg

10
  • Capturing Recording
  • Digital Video

11
Capturing
  • Digital Video Digitization Procedures
  • 1. Select Connection method
  • 2. Choose input method
  • 3. Select bitrate quality
  • 4. Record content
  • Common methods of video connection
  • DV capture (digital) Firewire/ USB-2
  • TV/ Video capture (low quality Analog)
    Composite
  • TV/ Video capture (higher quality Analog)
    S-Video

12
  • Connecting To The Computer

13
Capturing Connection Types
  • Firewire For Apple machines and Laptops this is
    standard but most PCs desktops need a card
    installed. Bandwidth 400 Mbps
  • Suitable for uncompressed digital video capture
    off a mini-dv camcorder
  • USB 1.2 This is available on most computers at
    this stage. Bandwidth is poor at 1.2 Mbps (so not
    suitable for quality digital video)
  • USB 2.0 Available as default on Pentium 4
    machines. Connections look the same as USB 1.2
    but with higher bandwidth capability 440 Mbps.
    Future DV Capture will use this also but
    currently firewire is king

14
Capturing Connection Approaches
  • Connecting a camcorder to computer using analog
    connection for digitization
  • Typical computer will not have analog input.
    Requires an ATI All in one wonder or WinTV PDR
    cards

3 Connect yellow (video) cable to composite-in,
phono connection placed into line-in.
1 Connect to camcorder
2 Connect white and red (audio) cables to phono
connection
composite-in
line-in
15
Capturing Connection Approaches
  • Connecting camcorder to computer using Digital
    Firewire connection.

1 Connect to camcorder
2 Connect to firewire port on PC
16
Capturing Connection Approaches
  • Connecting Camcorder to TV / Video

1 Connect to camcorder
2 connect the three wires to scart adapter
3 Connect scart to TV /Video
S-Video
Composite
Stereo Audio
17
Capturing Digitisation
Example Digitisation Programs
Firewire/ Mini DV Capture program Digital Source
Video Capture Analog/ TV Capture Board
18
Capturing Digitisation
  • Select bitrate quality
  • 1 minute MPEG-1 at 1 Mbps 7 MB
  • 1 minute MPEG-2 at 6 Mbps 48 MB
  • 1 minute DV capture at 31.2 mbps 219 MB
  • The Captured Digital Video can be further
    compressed at a later stage
  • QuickTime Pro, Helix Producer, TMPGenc or
    FlaskMPEG can reduce the bitrate further
  • Digital video editing is generally done on higher
    quality video before being further compressed for
    e-mail or the internet

19
  • Now that the digital video
  • has been recorded we can
  • edit it

20
Digital Video Editing
  • Digital Video Editing can involve simple
    operations like removing and/or joining sections
    of video content.
  • This can be quick for the computer to complete as
    it does not require any re-encoding of the video.

  • More complex Digital Video Editing is the
    addition of titles, visual transition effects
    like swirls and the mixing of different audio and
    video sources.
  • This is usually slower for the computer to
    complete
  • generally a number of times the duration of the
    content.

21
Digital Video Editing
  • Semi-Professional (complex editing) Avid
    Express,Adobe Premiere

Current Project Videos, audio and images for ed
it
Visual Output Transitions and effects
Output Timeline showing duration and audiovideo

transitions and effects
22
Digital Video Editing
  • Microsoft Movie Maker 2 Designed for home users
    Allows Simple and Semi-complex Editing

Output Timeline
23
Digital Video Editing
  • TMPGenc Create MPEG-1 2 and allows simple
    Editing and Re-compression at modified bitrates

Simple Edit Remove section of video
24
  • Now That the video is ready it can be
  • viewed on computer or over the internet

25
Streaming Digital Video
  • Streaming Video
  • Allows the video to be played over the internet
    without having to be downloaded to the computer
    beforehand
  • The video is sent in a number of segments to
    peoples computers
  • The video can be streamed at different
    bandwidths
  • The bandwidth of the persons connection to the
    internet needs to be higher than the videos
    bitrate
  • The streamed video is not saved onto the client
    machine and therefore cannot be copied

26
Streaming Digital Video
  • Streaming video can be expensive requiring a fast
    computer and expensive streaming software
  • Edited digital video needs to re-compressed
    (re-encoded at a lower bitrate as peoples
    internet bandwidth might be low.
  • 48 Kbps for a 56K modem
  • 200 Kbps for broadband
  • Two Free streaming packages are available
  • Apples Darwin Streaming Server
  • http//developer.apple.com/darwin/projects/streami
    ng
  • RealNetworks
  • www.realnetworks.com/products/server/

27
  • Creation of DVD-Video disks from the
  • source video is also possible

28
DVD-Video Creation
  • DVD-Video Creation Procedures
  • Obtain your Digital Video source
  • MPEG-1, MPEG-2 or AVI (Mini DV format)
  • Create a DVD Menu Structure with your source
    video as input (See Slide 29)
  • Output your created DVD to computer hard disk
  • Place a blank DVD-R (recordable) into the DVD
    recorder drive on your computer
  • Use DVD burning software like Nero 6
    Ultra-edition to write the DVD-Video files on the
    harddisk to your DVD-R (See Slide 30)
  • Note Not All burning software will write a DVD
    compliant DVD-Video

29
DVD-Video Creation
  • Screenshot from TMPGENC DVD Author

Video Source Files
DVD Chapter Layout
Background Layout Design
DVD Recordable Capacity
30
DVD-Video Creation
  • Screenshot from Nero 6 Burning Software

DVD Video to Create
DVD Video Source Files on Computer
DVD-Video Project
31
  • The End
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