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Introduction to Computer Networks and Data Communications

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... layer - provides an end-to-end error-free network connection. ... is sitting at work using a laptop computer with a wireless connection into the corporate LAN. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Computer Networks and Data Communications


1
  • Introduction to Computer Networks and Data
    Communications

2
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • The Language of Computer Networks
  • Computer network - an interconnection of
    computers and computing equipment using either
    wires or radio waves over small or large
    geographic distances
  • Local area network - networks that are small in
    geographic size spanning a room, building, or
    campus
  • Metropolitan area network - networks that serve
    an area of 3 to 30 miles - approximately the area
    of a typical city

3
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • The Language of Computer Networks
  • Wide area network - a large network that
    encompasses parts of states, multiple states,
    countries, and the world
  • Personal area network a network of a few
    meters, between wireless devices such as PDAs,
    laptops, and similar devices.
  • Voice network - a network that transmits
    telephone signals
  • Data network - a network that transmits computer
    data

4
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • The Language of Computer Networks
  • Data communications - the transfer of digital or
    analog data using digital or analog signals
  • Telecommunications - the study of telephones and
    the systems that transmit telephone signals
  • Network management - the design, installation,
    and support of a network and its hardware and
    software

5
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • The Big Picture of Networks
  • Networks are composed of many devices,
    including
  • workstations (computers and telephones)
  • servers
  • network hubs and switches (bridges)
  • routers (LAN-WAN and WAN-WAN)
  • telephone switching gear

6
Data Communications and Computer Networks


7
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • A reference model that describes the layers of
    hardware and software necessary to transmit data
    between two points or for multiple devices /
    applications to interoperate
  • Reference models are necessary to increase the
    likelihood that different components from
    different manufacturers will converse
  • There are two architectures that are required
    learning The OSI Model, and the TCP/IP protocol
    suite

8
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • The OSI Models seven layers

9
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • Application layer - where the application using
    the network resides. Common network applications
    include remote login, file transfer, e-mail, and
    web page browsing.
  • Presentation layer - performs a series of
    miscellaneous functions necessary for presenting
    the data package properly to the sender or
    receiver

10
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • Session layer - responsible for establishing
    sessions between users.
  • Transport layer - provides an end-to-end
    error-free network connection. Makes sure the
    data arrives at the destination exactly as it
    left the source.
  • Network layer - responsible for creating,
    maintaining and ending network connections.
    Transfers a data packet from node to node within
    the network.

11
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • Data link layer - responsible for taking the
    data and transforming it into a frame with
    header, control and address information, and
    error detection code.
  • Physical layer - handles the transmission of bits
    over a communications channel. Includes voltage
    levels, connectors, media choice, modulation
    techniques.

12
Data Communications and Computer Networks


13
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • The TCP/IP protocol suite

14
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • Application layer - equivalent to the OSIs
    presentation and application layers
  • Transport layer - performs same function as OSI
    transport layer
  • Network (Internet or internetwork) layer -
    roughly equivalent to the OSIs network layer
  • Network access (data link/physical) layer -
    equivalent to the OSIs physical and data link
    layers

15
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Network Architectures
  • Logical and physical connections - A logical
    connection is one that exists only in the
    software, while a physical connection is one that
    exists in the hardware.
  • Note that in a network architecture, only the
    lowest layer contains a physical connection,
    while all higher layers contain logical
    connections.

16
Data Communications and Computer Networks
  • Network Architectures
  • Logical and physical connections


17
Data Communications and Computer Networks
  • Network Architectures
  • Example of data flow through layers


18
Data Communications and Computer Networks


Network Connections in Action
19
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • The TCP/IP Protocol Suite in Action
  • Note the flow of data from user to web browser
    and back
  • At each layer, information is either added or
    removed, depending on whether the data is leaving
    or arriving at a workstation
  • The adding of information over pre-existing
    information is termed encapsulation

20
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

21
Data Communications and Computer Networks

  • Review Questions
  • A user is sitting at work using a laptop
    computer with a wireless connection into the
    corporate LAN. The user is sending email. What
    basic connections are being used?
  • List the seven OSI layers with a quick
    description of each layer.
  • List the TCP/IP layers with a quick description
    of each layer.
  • What is the difference between a logical and a
    physical interface / connection?
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