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School in Front of Challenges of Knowledge Society, Again and Again


For policy-makes in all OECD countries, ICT in education was regarded as ... Inquiry- and problemsolving (n=2) The level of. cognitive Traditional individual or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: School in Front of Challenges of Knowledge Society, Again and Again

School in Front of Challenges of Knowledge
Society, Again and Again
  • Liisa Ilomäki
  • Department of Psychology
  • University of Helsinki
  • 25.10.2007
  • EDEN conference


ICT to change education
For policy-makes in all OECD countries, ICT in
education was regarded as a means to promote
information society, and educational technology
was expected to change the education.
Requirements were less evident, something like
life long learning Researchers expectations
arouse from the severe critics by
constructivist researchers against school
learning instead of learning for authentic
activities and real life contexts. They expected
to conduct theoretical ideas with ICT.
Liisa Ilomäki 2007
Changes in schools because of ICT, beliefs
  • teachers have a better ICT competence
  • working practices are more student-centred
  • all kind of network applications are used in
  • ICT in general is used in schools
  • Internet is used for searches
  • wonderful pilots and examples of advanced working
    and knowledge practices
  • we are doing fine?

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
In successful pilot schools
  • ICT-skills were taught in a context integrated in
    the curriculum and as part of complex skills such
    as information handling, collaboration and
    communication and were embedded in an authentic
  • Learning projects became student-centered they
    were longer, more time-consuming processes, and
    many of the ICT-based innovations involved
    multidisciplinary and collaborative projects,
    such as project-based learning and independent
  • The proportion of authentic activities increased,
    and students worked on topics meaningful to them
    because of the connection to real life and
    students own experiences.

Liisa Ilomäki 2007

In successful pilot schools 2
  • Teachers role changed from that of primary
    source of information to one who creates
    structure and provides advice for students,
    monitors their progress, and assesses their
    accomplishments, and works as a coach
  • Respectively students role changed and they
    were engaged in general and or online inquiry,
    and in productive learning, which developed their
    sense of capability and agency
  • Students skills of ICT, problem solving,
    information management, collaboration and
    communication develop (often called for lifelong
    competencies) when ICT is used in a
    student-centered way

Liisa Ilomäki 2007

In successful pilot schools 3
  • ICT was used for the existing content or at
    offering the existing curriculum content in a
    different way, not in changing the content
  • The use of Internet helped to give a much wider
    coverage of topics and it gave access to
    authentic sources and materials, which helped to
    establish a sense of contact between the
    classroom and a wider world
  • Computer was more frequently used as a learning
    tool rather than to deliver instruction.
  • The working atmosphere was more free than in a
    traditional classroom without ICT the
    relationship between teacher and students more
    open and free, because teachers have less rules
    students were motivated to work with computers
    because the activities are more challenging than
    ordinary tasks and the overall learning
    environment is more meaningful.

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
Characteristics in successful schools
  • Strong educational vision and experience in
    innovation and ICT use
  • Reputation for being an innovation school
  • Alignment with government education policy
  • The principal and the school leadership are key
  • Several community-directed strategies for solving
    the problems of using ICT, especially
    transformations of school organization.
  • For instance, at some schools, there was a shift
    from hierarchical structures to more horizontal
    ones, and improvements in staff development
    through building the teachers' professional
  • Teachers' effective professional development
    requires training in a broad sense, integrating
    teachers ICT competencies with their pedagogical
    knowledge and skills

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
Characteristics in successful schools 2
  • A strong professional teacher community and a
    well-supported instructional technology were in a
    reciprocal and recursive interaction teachers'
    common need to learn about technology contributed
    to the development of the professional community,
    which again contributed to more integrated and
    focused uses of technology, the refinement of the
    school's visions, and gradual development of a
    better support system for technology use.
  • The use of ICT inspires teachers' pedagogical
    collaboration educational settings with ICT
    become cross disciplinary large projects and
    process-oriented activities, special expertise of
    several teachers required. Teachers become team
    members instead of independent workers.
  • Teachers' personal commitment and appreciative,
    collaborative community with support of the

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
Two kinds of ICT stories in schools
  • In successful pilots, the way of implementing ICT
    is tailored. Schools and teachers are supported
    in individuals ways, focusing especially on the
    needs of that specific school and supporting the
    internal improvement of that school. These
    schools are better prepared to answer the
    knowledge society challenges
  • Change is active transformation
  • In the large majority of schools, ICT has been
    mainly implemented to fit the ordinary practices,
    and to adapt to the inevitable future with
    educational technology. No individual support, no
    extra resources.
  • Change is slow revolution

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
In ordinary schools
  • No problems in access to ICT.
  • Big differences between the amount of use and
    practices of using ICT between ordinary schools
    and pilot schools
  • ICT is mainly used to adapt in the existing
    teaching practices and or to adapt in the
    inevitable changes caused by technology
  • Pedagogical practices have changed only little
    the use of ICT is dependent on an individual
    teachers interest and motivation.

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
An example Learning tasks based on cognitive
Inquiry- and problemsolving
(n2) The level of cognitive Traditional
individual or challenge collaborative projects
(n13) Lesson writings (n4) N34
Applying practice (n11) lessons Strict
ly structured drill and practice task (n4)
Liisa Ilomäki and Minna Lakkala, 2005
School in front of challenges
  • School has not used all the powerful
    possibilities of new technology to transform the
    existing teaching and learning practices in the
    majority of schools.
  • There is a digital gap in education the
    technology used in education is for students
    boring, ineffective, and it does not give
    competence for using advanced technology.
  • The large majority of teachers are still quite
    low level users, and many of them still have
    difficulties to find meaningful pedagogical use
    for technology.
  • Concentration on technology instead of learning
    has prevented the pedagogical reform

Liisa Ilomäki 2007
School in front of challenges 2
  • The change process in school is undervalued in
    the ICT implementation, and ICT was thought to
    cause changes in learning and teaching practices
    as such. The importance of change process was
    not understood.
  • There is a need to re-think the schooling what
    we want and why, how to reach the goals.
    Experiences from pilot schools can give examples
    and guidelines to be conducted in ordinary
  • This is a political question, not a research

Liisa Ilomäki 2007