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The Writers World: Paragraphs and Essays

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Title: The Writers World: Paragraphs and Essays


1
The Writers World Paragraphs and Essays
  • Part IV Editing Handbook
  • Chapter 18 Complex Sentences

2
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 1 Example
Each sentence is complex. Circle the
subordinating conjunction, and underline the
dependent (subordinate) clause.
  • Example Even if we cannot know for sure,
    early humans probably played games and sports.
  • Even if we cannot know for sure, early
    humans probably played games and sports.

3
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 1 Each
sentence is complex. Circle the subordinating
conjunction, and underline the dependent
(subordinate) clause.
  • 1. When humans shifted from food gathers to
    hunters, sports probably developed in complexity.
  • 1. When humans shifted from food gathers to
    hunters, sports probably developed in complexity.
  • 2. It would be important to practice cooperative
    hunting before humans attacked mammoths or other
    large creatures.
  • 2. It would be important to practice cooperative
    hunting before humans attacked mammoths or other
    large creatures.

4
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 1 Each
sentence is complex. Circle the subordinating
conjunction, and underline the dependent
(subordinate) clause.
  • 3. Early humans also practiced war games so that
    they could win battles with other tribes.
  • 3. Early humans also practiced war games
    so that they could win battles with other
    tribes.
  • 4. Spectator sports evolved when societies had
    more leisure time.
  • 4. Spectator sports evolved when societies had
    more leisure time.

5
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 1 Each
sentence is complex. Circle the subordinating
conjunction, and underline the dependent
(subordinate) clause.
  • 5. In many places, spectators watched while
    young boys passed through their initiation
    rituals.
  • 5. In many places, spectators watched while
    young boys passed through their initiation
    rituals.
  • 6. Whenever early humans played sports or games,
    they tested their physical, intellectual, and
    social skills.
  • 6. Whenever early humans played sports or games,
    they tested their physical, intellectual, and
    social skills.

6
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2 Example
Underline dependent clause, circle the
subordinating conjunction, and choose one of the
relationships Condition, Purpose, Contrast,
Reason or Cause, Location, Time.
  • Example When someone decided to attach wheels
    to a plank of wood, a new sport began.
  • When someone decided to attach wheels to a
    plank of wood, a new sport began. Time
  • The name skateboard came about because the
    device was literally a board with
    roller-skating wheels attached to it.
  • The name skateboard came about because the
    device was literally a board with
    roller-skating wheels attached to it. Reason
    or Cause

7
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause, circle subordinating
conjunction, and choose one of the relationships
Condition, Purpose, Contrast, Reason or Cause,
Location, Time.
  • 1. Although kids occasionally rode skateboards
    and scooters, bicycles were more popular for the
    next forty years.
  • 1. Although kids occasionally rode skateboards
    and scooters, bicycles were more popular for the
    next forty years. Contrast
  • 2. In the prosperous 1950s, the quality of
    skateboards improved when modifications were made
    to the device that holds wheels.
  • 2. In the prosperous 1950s, the quality of
    skateboards improved when modifications were made
    to the device that holds wheels. Time

8
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause, circle subordinating
conjunction, and choose one of the relationships
Condition, Purpose, Contrast, Reason or Cause,
Location, Time.
  • 3. Teenagers bought skateboards so that they
    could practice an inexpensive and thrilling
    hobby.
  • 3. Teenagers bought skateboards so that they
    could practice an inexpensive and thrilling
    hobby. Purpose
  • 4. Although the sport was quite dangerous,
    skaters tried doing a variety of tricks.
  • 4. Although the sport was quite dangerous,
    skaters tried doing a variety of tricks.
    Contrast

9
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause, circle subordinating
conjunction, and choose one of the relationships
Condition, Purpose, Contrast, Reason or Cause,
Location, Time.
  • 5. Many surfers took up skateboarding because
    the sports required similar skills.
  • 5. Many surfers took up skateboarding because
    the sports required similar skills. Reason or
    Cause
  • 6. Wherever surfing was popular, skateboarding
    was popular too.
  • 6. Wherever surfing was popular, skateboarding
    was popular too. Location

10
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause and choose one of the
following relationships Condition, Purpose,
Contrast, Reason or Cause, Location, Time.
  • 7. When the first skateboard movie (Skater
    Dance) was released, over 50 million skateboards
    had been sold.
  • 7. When the first skateboard move (Skater Dance)
    was released, over 50 million skateboards had
    been sold. Time
  • 8. In 1965, the popularity of skateboarding
    plummeted because too many people had serious
    skateboarding accidents.
  • 8. In 1965, the popularity of skateboarding
    plummeted because too many people had serious
    skateboarding accidents. Reason or Cause

11
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause and choose one of the
following relationships Condition, Purpose,
Contrast, Reason or Cause, Location, Time.
  • 9. Many cities threatened to ban skateboarding
    unless manufacturers could develop a safer
    product.
  • 9. Many cities threatened to ban skateboarding
    unless manufacturers could develop a safer
    product. Condition

12
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause and choose one of the
following relationships Condition, Purpose,
Contrast, Reason or Cause, Location, Time.
  • 10. According to Michael Brooke, author of The
    Concrete Wave, many accidents happened because
    the wheels on early skateboards did not grip the
    road well.
  • 10. According to Michael Brooke, author of The
    Concrete Wave, many accidents happened because
    the wheels on early skateboards did not grip the
    road well. Reason or Cause

13
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 2
Underline dependent clause and choose one of the
following relationships Condition, Purpose,
Contrast, Reason or Cause, Location, Time.
  • 11. After skateboarding died in the 1960s, it had
    several periods of renewed popularity.
  • 11. After skateboarding died in the 1960s, it had
    several periods of renewed popularity. Time
  • 12. Today, skateboarding is once again an
    important part of popular culture even though it
    is not exactly a new activity.
  • 12. Today, skateboarding is once again an
    important part of popular culture even though it
    is not exactly a new activity. Contrast

14
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 3 Example
Correct errors in the following selection by
adding the missing commas. If the sentence has a
subordinating conjunction, underline the
subordinating conjunction.
  • Example Although most sports are quite safe
    some sports are extremely hazardous.
  • Although most sports are quite safe, some
    sports are extremely hazardous.

15
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 3 Correct
errors in the following selection by adding the
missing commas. If the sentence has a
subordinating conjunction, underline the
subordinating conjunction.
  • 1. Each year, many people are killed or maimed
    when they practice a sport. Although skydiving
    and bungee jumping are hazardous extreme sports
    like base jumping, free diving, and rodeo events
    are even more dangerous.
  • 1. Each year, many people are killed or maimed
    when they practice a sport. Although skydiving
    and bungee jumping are hazardous, extreme sports
    like base jumping, free diving, and rodeo events
    are even more dangerous.

16
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 3 Correct
errors in the following selection by adding the
missing commas. If the sentence has a
subordinating conjunction, underline the
subordinating conjunction.
  • 2. Even though they may get arrested many people
    try base jumping. Wherever there are tall
    structures there may also be base jumpers. The
    jumpers wear parachutes and dive off such
    buildings and bridges so that they can feel an
    adrenaline rush. Because the parachute may get
    tangled on the structure base jumping is an
    extremely dangerous sport.
  • 2. Even though they may get arrested, many
    people try base jumping. Wherever there are tall
    structures, there may also be base jumpers. The
    jumpers wear parachutes and dive off such
    buildings and bridges so that they can feel an
    adrenaline rush. Because the parachute may get
    tangled on the structure, base jumping is an
    extremely dangerous sport.

17
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 3 Correct
errors in the following selection by adding the
missing commas. If the sentence has a
subordinating conjunction, underline the
subordinating conjunction.
  • 3. Another extreme sport is free diving. Free
    divers hold their breath until they are as deep
    as possible underwater. So that they can break
    existing records some free divers have dived
    almost 400 feet. Sometimes when their brains lack
    oxygen they have to be resuscitated.
  • 3. Another extreme sport is free diving. Free
    divers hold their breath until they are as deep
    as possible underwater. So that they can break
    existing records, some free divers have dived
    almost 400 feet. Sometimes when their brains lack
    oxygen, they have to be resuscitated.

18
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 3 Correct
errors in the following selection by adding the
missing commas. If the sentence has a
subordinating conjunction, underline the
subordinating conjunction.
  • 4. Although most rodeo sports can be safe full
    riding can be dangerous. Many full riders are
    injured or even killed because the bull throws
    them off and tramples them.
  • 4. Although most rodeo sports can be safe, full
    riding can be dangerous. Many full riders are
    injured or even killed because the bull throws
    them off and tramples them.

19
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 3 Correct
errors in the following selection by adding the
missing commas. If the sentence has a
subordinating conjunction, underline the
subordinating conjunction.
  • 5. Surprisingly, most sport-related injuries
    occur when people participate in an
    innocent-sounding sport. According to the
    American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, almost
    half a million people are injured each year when
    they ride bicycles. So, what is the best policy?
    When playing a sport consider the risks and take
    precautions to protect yourself.
  • 5. Surprisingly, most sport-related injuries
    occur when people participate in an
    innocent-sounding sport. According to the
    American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, almost
    half a million people are injured each year when
    they ride bicycles. So, what is the best policy?
    When playing a sport, consider the risks and
    take precautions to protect yourself.

20
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 4 Example
Add a missing subordinating conjunction to each
sentence. Use each subordinating conjunction only
once although, because, even though, unless,
when, whenever, whereas.
  • Example you refer to football in
    Europe, Africa, or Asia, most people assume
    you are talking about a round black-and-white
    ball.
  • Whenever you refer to football in Europe,
    Africa, or Asia, most people assume you are
    talking about a round black-and-white ball.

21
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 4 Add a
missing subordinating conjunction to each
sentence. Use each subordinating conjunction only
once although, because, even though, unless,
when, whenever, whereas.
  • 1. British people will assume you are speaking
    about soccer ___ you specifically say American
    football.
  • 1. British people will assume you are speaking
    about soccer unless you specifically say
    American football.

22
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 4 Add a
missing subordinating conjunction to each
sentence. Use each subordinating conjunction only
once although, because, even though, unless,
when, whenever, whereas.
  • 2. Soccer is the worlds most popular sport ___
    it is inexpensive to play. ___ someone decides to
    join a soccer team, he or she does not require
    expensive padding or equipment.
  • 2. Soccer is the worlds most popular sport
    because it is inexpensive to play. When someone
    decides to join a soccer team, he or she does not
    require expensive padding or equipment.

23
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 4 Add a
missing subordinating conjunction to each
sentence. Use each subordinating conjunction only
once although, because, even though, unless,
when, whenever, whereas.
  • 3. ___ many Americans love to play soccer, there
    are not many professional teams in the United
    States. Sports such as basketball, baseball, and
    football have professional teams and are shown on
    network television, ___ soccer is not widely
    viewed.
  • 3. Even though many Americans love to play
    soccer, there are not many professional teams in
    the United States. Sports such as basketball,
    baseball, and football have professional teams
    and are shown on network television, whereas
    soccer is not widely viewed.

24
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 4 Add a
missing subordinating conjunction to each
sentence. Use each subordinating conjunction only
once although, because, even though, unless,
when, whenever, whereas.
  • 4. ___ soccer has yet to become as popular as
    other sports in the United States, it is this
    countrys fastest-growing sport, according to the
    American Soccer Federation.
  • 4. Although soccer has yet to become as popular
    as other sports in the United States, it is this
    countrys fastest-growing sport, according to the
    American Soccer Federation.

25
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 5 Example
Add four missing subjects to the next paragraph.
  • Example Bullfighting is popular in Mexico and
    Spain, although is controversial.
  • Bullfighting is popular in Mexico and
    Spain, although it is controversial.

26
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 5 Add
four missing subjects to the next paragraph.
  • Each bullfight is an elaborate ceremony with
    three parts. In the first part, when the matador
    enters the arena, is dressed in a fine suit
    embroidered with gold. Holding a red cape, the
    matador tries to entice the bull. The spectators
    cheer when see the bull charging at the cape. In
    the second part, the banderilleros or matadors
    assistants, push short spears into the bull until
    is tired and angry. In the third part, the
    matador enters again holding a smaller cape and a
    sword. After has proved his prowess, the matador
    kills the bull.

27
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 5 Add
four missing subjects to the next paragraph.
  • Each bullfight is an elaborate ceremony with
    three parts. In the first part, when the matador
    enters the arena, he or she is dressed in a fine
    suit embroidered with gold. Holding a red cape,
    the matador tries to entice the bull. The
    spectators cheer when they see the bull charging
    at the cape. In the second part, the
    banderilleros or matadors assistants, push short
    spears into the bull until it is tired and angry.
    In the third part, the matador enters again
    holding a smaller cape and a sword. After he or
    she has proved his or her prowess, the matador
    kills the bull.

28
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 6 Example
Create two sentences by combining sentences, one
with the dependent clause at the beginning, one
with the dependent clause at the end while,
when, even though, although.
  • Example I try to exercise. It is important.
  • Because it is important, I try to
    exercise.
  • I try to exercise because it is important.

29
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 6 Create
two sentences by combining sentences, one with
the dependent clause at the beginning, one with
the dependent clause at the end while, when,
even though, although.
  • 1. I am not very athletic. I will join a team.
  • 1. Even though I am not very athletic, I will
    join a team.
  • 1. I will join a team even though I am not very
    athletic.
  • 2. The line is long. I will wait for my turn.
  • 2. Although the line is long, I will wait for my
    turn.
  • 2. I will wait for my turn although the line is
    long.

30
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 6 Create
two sentences by combining sentences, one with
the dependent clause at the beginning, one with
the dependent clause at the end while, when,
even though, although.
  • 3. The game is over. The winners will receive a
    trophy.
  • 3. When the game is over, the winners will
    receive a trophy.
  • 3. The winners will receive a trophy when the
    game is over.
  • 4. I was leaving the field. I heard people
    cheering.
  • 4. While I was leaving the field, I heard people
    cheering.
  • 4. I heard people cheering while I was leaving
    the field.

31
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 7 Example
Using a relative pronoun, combine each pair of
sentences to form a complex example.
  • Example The Olympic games celebrate
    excellence in sports. They occur once
    every four years.
  • The Olympic Games, which occur once every
    four years, celebrate excellence in sports.

32
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 7 Using a
relative pronoun, combine each pair of sentences
to form a complex example.
  • 1. Steroids can enhance your ability in sports.
    They are dangerous to your body and mind.
  • 1. Steroids, which are dangerous to your body and
    mind, can enhance your ability in sports.
  • 2. Some people use steroids. They may experience
    severe side effects or even death.
  • 2. Some people who use steroids may experience
    severe side effects or even death.

33
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 7 Using a
relative pronoun, combine each pair of sentences
to form a complex example.
  • 3. Steroids were first banned at the 1973
    Olympic Games. The drugs continue to be used by
    some athletes.
  • 3. Steroids, which were first banned at the 1973
    Olympic Games, continue to be used by some
    athletes.
  • 4. Wade Exum is a respected doctor. He ran the
    U.S. Olympic Committees doping control program.
  • 4. Wade Exum, who is a respected doctor, ran the
    U.S. Olympic Committees doping control program.

34
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 7 Using a
relative pronoun, combine each pair of sentences
to form a complex example.
  • 5. According to Dr. Exum, many U.S. athletes
    were caught using steroids. Those athletes were
    not punished.
  • 5. According to Dr. Exum, many U.S. athletes who
    were caught using steroids were not punished.
  • 6. In 2000, Dr. Exum quit his Olympic Committee
    job in disgust. He expressed his concerns in a
    report.
  • 6. In 2000, Dr. Exum, who expressed his concerns
    in a report, quit his Olympic Committee job in
    disgust.

35
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 8 Example
Add a dependent clause to each sentence. Begin
each clause with a relative pronoun (who, which,
that). Add any necessary commas.
  • Example Teams often win tournaments.
  • Teams that have good leadership often win
    tournaments.

36
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 8 Add
dependent clause to each sentence. Begin each
clause with a relative pronoun (who, which,
that). Add any necessary commas.
  • 1. The player ___ might be hired to promote
    running shoes.
  • 1. The player who wins might be hired to promote
    running shoes.
  • 2. An athlete ___ should be suspended for at
    least one game.
  • 2. An athlete who cheats should be suspended for
    at least one game.

37
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 8 Add
dependent clause to each sentence. Begin each
clause with a relative pronoun (who, which,
that). Add any necessary commas.
  • 3. Bungee jumping is an activity ___.
  • 3. Bungee jumping is an activity that is quite
    dangerous.
  • 4. I would like to try an extreme sport___.
  • 4. I would like to try an extreme sport that
    Ive never done before.

38
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 8 Add
dependent clause to each sentence. Begin each
clause with a relative pronoun (who, which,
that). Add any necessary commas.
  • 5. Skydiving ___ is a sport I would like to try.
  • 5. Skydiving, which gives a huge adrenaline rush,
    is a sport I would like to try.
  • 6. Athletes ___ should be warned about the
    dangers of steroids.
  • 6. Athletes who want to be the best should be
    warned about the dangers of steroids.

39
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9 Example
Correct embedded question errors.
  • Example The writer explains how can people
    love dangerous sports.

  • The writer explains how people can love
    dangerous sports.

40
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9 Correct
embedded question errors.
  • One activity that generates controversy is
  • bullfighting. Some people wonder why should
    bulls
  • die for entertainment. They question how can
  • bullfighting be so popular. Many call it a
    brutal
  • activity because the bull is weakened and then
  • slaughtered. For others, bullfighting is a
    strong and
  • respected tradition.

41
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9
Correct embedded question errors.
  • One activity that generates controversy is
  • bullfighting. Some people wonder why should
    bulls
  • die for entertainment. They question how can
  • bullfighting be so popular. Many call it a
    brutal
  • activity because the bull is weakened and then
  • slaughtered. For others, bullfighting is a
    strong and
  • respected tradition.

bulls should
can
42
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9 Correct
embedded question errors.
  • Spanish matador Mario Carrión wonders why do
    some people call bullfighting a sport. In sports,
    the goal is to win points in a confrontation with
    an opponent. In Carrións view, a bullfight is
    not a sport because a human cannot compete
    against a thousand-pound beast. He defines
    bullfighting as a dramatic dance with death.

43
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9 Correct
embedded question errors.
  • Spanish matador Mario Carrión wonders why do
    some people call bullfighting a sport. In sports,
    the goal is to win points in a confrontation with
    an opponent. In Carrións view, a bullfight is
    not a sport because a human cannot compete
    against a thousand-pound beast. He defines
    bullfighting as a dramatic dance with death.

44
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9 Correct
embedded question errors.
  • Bullfight enthusiasts ask themselves why does
    bullfighting have a bad reputation. They wonder
    why is it rejected by so many nations. Do you
    know what can they do to improve the reputation
    of bullfighting?

45
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesPractice 9 Correct
embedded question errors.
  • Bullfight enthusiasts ask themselves why does
    bullfighting have a bad reputation. They wonder
    why is it rejected by so many nations. Do you
    know what can they do to improve the reputation
    of bullfighting?

has
it is
they can
46
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review
Example To give the paragraphs more variety,
form complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • Example When some people pierce their
    tongues. They risk getting an infection.
  • When some people pierce their tongues,
    they risk getting an infection.

47
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review To
give the paragraphs more variety, form at least
ten complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • 1. Many activity fads come and go. Many of
    these fads are ridiculous. Why do fads become so
    popular? Nobody knows the answer. There were some
    unusual fads in the 1950s. College students did
    phone-booth stuffing. Students entered a phone
    booth one by one. They tried to stuff as many
    people as possible into the closed space. Later,
    hula hoops hit the market. In the1960s, millions
    of people bought and used the circular plastic
    tubes. The hula hoop fad did not last long. It
    briefly provided people with an innovative way to
    exercise. People put the hoops around their
    waists. They would gyrate to keep the hoops
    spinning.

48
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review To
give the paragraphs more variety, form at least
ten complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • 1. Many activity fads come and go because many
    of these fads are ridiculous. Nobody knows why
    fads become so popular. There were some unusual
    fads in the 1950s. College students did
    phone-booth stuffing when students entered a
    phone booth one by one. They tried to stuff as
    many people as possible into the closed space.
    Later, hula hoops hit the market. In the1960s,
    millions of people bought and used the circular
    plastic tubes. The hula hoop fad did not last
    long, even though it provided people with an
    innovative way to exercise. Whenever people put
    the hoops around their waists, they would gyrate
    to keep the hoops spinning.

49
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review To
give the paragraphs more variety, form at least
ten complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • 2. In the spring of 1974, a streaking fad
    began. It occurred on college campuses in Florida
    and California. Young people stripped naked. They
    may have felt embarrassed. They ran through
    public places such as football stadiums and
    malls. They wanted to shock people. The actor
    David Niven was presenting at the 1974 Academy
    Awards. A nude streaker dashed behind him. The
    streaker made a peace sign. Millions of viewers
    were watching the show. They saw the streaker.

50
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review To
give the paragraphs more variety, form at least
ten complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • 2. In the spring of 1974, a streaking fad
    began. It occurred on college campuses in Florida
    and California when young people stripped naked.
    Although they may have felt embarrassed, they ran
    through public places such as football stadiums
    and malls because they wanted to shock people.
    The actor David Niven was presenting at the 1974
    Academy Awards when a nude streaker dashed behind
    him. The streaker made a peace sign. Millions of
    viewers who were watching the show saw the
    streaker.

51
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review To
give the paragraphs more variety, form at least
ten complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • 3. Flash mobbing, a recent trend, is organized
    on Web sites. Flash mobs first appeared in New
    York City in the summer of 2003. For no obvious
    reason, a large group of people gathered on a
    stone wall in Central Park. They chirped like
    birds. In Berlin, Germany, about forty people
    shouted Yes. They were in a subway car. They
    shouted into their cell phones at exactly the
    same moment. In Montréal, Canada, a large group
    of people began quacking. They threw rubber ducks
    into a fountain. Do you know the answer to the
    following question? Why do certain web sites
    promote flash mobbing? They do it for a simple
    reason. They hope to add vibrancy to dull modern
    life.

52
Chapter 18 Complex SentencesFinal Review To
give the paragraphs more variety, form at least
ten complex sentences by combining pairs of
sentences. You will have to add some words and
delete others.
  • 3. Flash mobbing, a recent trend, is organized
    on Web sites. Flash mobs first appeared in New
    York City in the summer of 2003 when, for no
    obvious reason, a large group of people gathered
    on a stone wall in Central Park. They chirped
    like birds. In Berlin, Germany, about forty
    people who were in a subway car shouted Yes
    into their cell phones at exactly the same
    moment. In Montréal, Canada, a large group of
    people began quacking when they threw rubber
    ducks into a fountain. Do you know why do certain
    web sites promote flash mobbing? They do it
    because they hope to add vibrancy to dull modern
    life.
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