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Vocabulary

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Renaissance man found himself suspended between faith and reason. ... First to see sunspots, mountains and craters on the moon, moons of Jupiter ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vocabulary


1
Vocabulary
  • Patron
  • Humanism
  • Humanities
  • Perspective
  • Vernacular
  • Utopian
  • Indulgence
  • Predestination
  • Theocracy
  • Annul
  • Canonize
  • Compromise
  • Scapegoat
  • Ghetto
  • Heliocentric
  • Hypothesis
  • Scientific Method
  • Gravity

2
Renaissance and Reformation
  • Mid 1300s to Mid 1600s

Michelangelo
Henry the Navigator
38
3
The Renaissance in Italy
  • Begins in Italy
  • Center of Roman history
  • Wealthy powerful merchant class
  • Stressed education and individual achievement
  • Changed the way people view themselves and their
    world
  • Interested in Classical learning
  • Explore here and now

4
Medici in Florence
  • Banking, mining, wool and others
  • Money equals power
  • Lorenzo The Magnificent financed the arts
    Patron

1449 - 1492 Whoever wants to be happy, let him be
soabout tomorrow there's no knowing
5
Humanism
First important humanist
  • Focused on worldly subjects
  • Studied Greek and Roman culture
  • Renaissance man found himself suspended between
    faith and reason.

Petrarch was crowned poet laureate in Rome in
1341, and was a classical scholar, diplomat,
historian and philosopher 1304-1374
6
The ArtsReflected Humanism
  • Realism
  • The style of art in which the artist strives to
    make the painted scene look as real and natural
    as possible.
  • Perspective
  • Creating the illusion of space and distance on a
    flat surface such as a canvas or wall

7
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519
8
Painter
Sfumato misty atmosphere
Perspective
9
Inventor
10
Scientist
11
MICHELANGELO di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
Sculptor Painter Architect
1475-1564
12
Sculptor
David 1504Marble
Moses 1515Marble
Pietà 1499 Marble
13
Painter
14
The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Completed between 1508 and 1512
15
Last Judgment1536 - 1541
16
Architect
17
Raphael 1483 - 1520
Madonna del Cardellino 1507
The Prince of Painters."
18
Stanze in the Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican
The School of Athens 1509
19
Renaissance Architecture
  • Adopted arches, columns and domes from Rome and
    Greece
  • Michelangelos dome on St. Peters church was
    used on the U.S. Capital

20
Literature How to books
Book of the Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione
(1478-1529)
The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527)
  • Men, well educated and mannered, mastery in
    sports to poetry
  • Women, graceful and kind but reserved. Pure
    but not prudish
  • How to gain and maintain power
  • Ends justify the means

21
Summary
  • Write at least four sentences summarizing your
    notes.

22
Renaissance in Northern Europe (1500-1615)
Beginsafter the plague In the prosperous cities
of Flanders The rest of Europe followed 100 yrs
later
Albrecht Durer (German Leonardo)
St Anne with the Virgin and Child
23
Flemish painters
Hubert van Eyck
Pieter Bruegel
  • Portrayal of towns people and religious scenes.
  • Developed oil paint

Country Wedding
24
Northern Humanists
Erasmus (1469 - 1536)
  • Stressed education and classical learning like
    Italy
  • Also emphasized religious themes not like Italy
  • Translated the Bible into Greek and Latin
  • Wanted to translate it into everyday language
  • Called for reforms in the church

25
Sir Thomas More
More coined the term "utopia" which is a pun
meaning both "good place" and "no place."
26
Literature in the North
Started writing for the common people using
their language
  • Shakespeare
  • Wrote 37 plays about social problems and
    political power
  • Cervantes
  • Spanish mocked medieval chivalry with Don Quixote
  • Rabelis
  • Wrote stories about Giants

27
The printing press
Technology
  • By 1300's paper making
  • By 1400's movable type
  • 1456 Johann Gutenberg printed the bible using
    metal moveable type
  • By 1500, more than 20 million books were printed
  • By 1600, 200 million were in circulation

Impact
  • Books were cheaper
  • Literacy rate began to go up
  • Knowledge level increased
  • People were exposed to new ideas

28
Summary
  • Write at least four sentences summarizing your
    notes.

29
The Protestant Reformation
  • Abuses in the Church
  • Involved in worldly affairs
  • Lavish lifestyle
  • The sale of indulgences
  • Many northern humanists stressed returning to
    the simple ways
  • Bible study
  • Exposed Church abuses
  • Rejected pomp and ceremony

30
Martin Luther
  • Posted 95 Theses
  • A list against indulgences
  • Printed and distributed all over Europe
  • Excommunicated in 1521
  • Went into hiding
  • Became a hero to thousands

1483 - 1546
31
Luthers Teachings
  • Justification by faith
  • Bible was the only source of religious truth
  • Rejected church priesthood saying all who
    believed had the priesthood
  • Rejected five of the seven sacraments
  • Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages and
    prayer to saints
  • Abolished elaborate ritual and ceremony
  • Allowed clergy to marry

32
Protestants...those who protested papal authority
  • John CalvinSet up a theocracy in Geneva
  • Salvation through faith alone
  • PredestinationSaints and sinners
  • Stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty
    and morality
  • Spread to Germany, France, Netherlands, England
    and Scotland

33
Other Reformation Ideas
  • Anabaptists
  • Rejected infant baptism
  • Some sought radical social change
  • Abolition of private property
  • Most were peaceful and law abiding

Mennonites and Amish have their roots in
Anabaptists
Stressed the fact that salvation is a gift from
God yet, they also taught that it is a
conditional gift, which can be taken away from
the disobedient
34
Henry VIII
BORN 28 JUNE 1491SUCCEEDED 21 APRIL 1509DIED
28 JANUARY 1547
35
Shortly after becoming king, Henry VIII took
Catherine of Aragon as his bride.
  • Henry VIII sought annulment, pope said NO
  • Henry fights back
  • Stirred up English feelings against the pope
  • Took over the church in England
  • 1536 to 1540 closed all convents and monasteries
  • Seized their land
  • Gave it to his supporters
  • Creating The Church of England

36
The Wives of Henry VIII
X
Jane Seymour
Anne Boleyn
Anne
X
Kathryn Howard
Katherine Parr
37
Tudor History
Henry VIII
Edward VI
Mary
Elizabeth I
38
Catholic Reformation
  • 1530's and 1540's Pope Paul III
  • Revive the moral authority of the church
  • Appointed reformers to key posts
  • Council of Trent 1545
  • Reaffirmed traditional views
  • Bible was not the only source of Gods word
  • Stiff penalties for corruption in the clergy
  • Established new schools to educate the clergy
  • Inquisition
  • Church court to root out heresies
  • Index of forbidden books

39
Results of the Catholic Reformation
  • The church regained some of its former power
  • Europe remained divided
  • Protestant north
  • Catholic south

Ignatius LoyolaJesuits
40
Religious fever spread over Europe
  • Jews in Europe
  • Spain kicked them out
  • Italy put them in ghettos
  • Germany made them wear a yellow badge
  • Luther wanted them expelled and their
    synagogues/books burned
  • Dutch Calvinists took them in
  • Protestants against Catholic
  • Both against radical groups like Anabaptists

First "official" ghetto established in Rome in
1555 Wore a yellow star
41
Summary
  • Write at least four sentences summarizing your
    notes.

42
The Scientific Revolution
Renaissance and the Reformation looked back
Science looked forward
43
Nicolaus Copernicus1473 - 1543
  • There is no one centre in the universe.
  • The Earth's centre is not the centre of the
    universe.
  • The centre of the universe is near the sun.
  • The distance from the Earth to the sun is
    imperceptible compared with the distance to the
    stars.
  • The rotation of the Earth accounts for the
    apparent daily rotation of the stars.
  • The apparent annual cycle of movements of the sun
    is caused by the Earth revolving round it.
  • The apparent retrograde motion of the planets is
    caused by the motion of the Earth from which one
    observes.
  • Proposed a heliocentric or sun-centered
    universe
  • Most experts disagreed
  • Believing in the Church supported Ptolemys
    theory of earth centered

44
Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler
  • Used Brahes data and mathematically proved
    Copernicus right.
  • Also proved elliptical orbits

Observed and recorded heavenly bodies for years
45
Galileo Galilei
  • Assembled the first astronomical telescope
  • First to see sunspots, mountains and craters on
    the moon, moons of Jupiter
  • He was brought to trial in 1633 on heresy
    charges

On 31 October 1992, the Catholic Church admitted
that errors had been made by the theological
advisors in the case of Galileo
1564-1642
46
Isaac Newton Robert Boyle
1627-91
1642-1727
  • Explained the difference between elements and
    compounds
  • Explained the effect of temperature and
    pressure on gases

Proved gravity
47
Other Scientists
  • Andreas Vesalius and da Vinci
  • Dissected human bodies and drew detailed
    drawings of them.
  • Ambroise Pare
  • Pioneered stitches to close a wound
  • Bacon and Descartes thought truth came after a
    long investigation
  • Descartes..Emphasized human reasoning I think
    therefore, I am
  • BaconEmphasized experimentation and
    observation

48
Scientific Method
  • State the problem
  • Gather information of the problem
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Experiment to test the hypothesis
  • Record and analyze the data
  • State a conclusion
  • Repeat

49
Summary
  • Write at least four sentences summarizing your
    notes.

50
ALL DONE
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