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Increased share of renewable energy and conservation of biodiversity in Slovenia indeed a mission im


NGO seminar on Slovene EU presidency environmental issues. Ljubljana, 7. 8. junij 2007 ... Achievement of anti-inflation and EU monetary convergency goals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Increased share of renewable energy and conservation of biodiversity in Slovenia indeed a mission im

Increased share of renewable energy and
conservation of biodiversity in Slovenia indeed
a mission impossible ?
  • Andrej Klemenc
  • Slovenski E-forum
  • Dimiceva ulica 12, 1113 Ljubljana
  • NGO seminar on Slovene EU presidency
    environmental issues
  • Ljubljana, 7. 8. junij 2007
  • City Hotel, Dalmatinova 15

SLOVENSKI E-FORUM Society for Energy Economics
  • Expert based environmental citizens organization
    established in 1993 by former activists of youth
    environmental movements and green party.
  • Mission support to development of energy
    services that will enable bettered quality of
    life of actual and future generations while
    reducing negative impacts on the environment
  • Goals better energy services and better
    environment, increased awareness on energy and
    enviornment/climate, enhanced public
    participation in design and implementation of
    energy and related policies.
  • 80 members experts and activists from the field
  • of energy policy, integrated energy planning,
  • energy economics, energy conservation,
  • renewable energy, climate change,
  • (market instruments of) environmental
  • environmental sociology, public
    participation etc.

Amount and structure of Total Primary Enegy
Supply in Slovenia from 2006 Source Annual
energy outlook of RS 2005, IJS-CEU

Structure of TPES in Slovenia and EU 25 and
amount and structure of final energy in Slovenia
Source Annual energy outlook of RS 2005, IJS-CEU
Slika 3 Struktura koncne porabe energije v
letu1 Vir SURS 2000 in 2005
Energy intensity of Slovenije
  • Elctricity-intensity of Slovenia
  • Energy intensity of USA, Slovenia and EU 15

  • The origins of the present conflict between
    biodiversity and RES
  • State of the art of the energy sector in Slovenia
    and present trends
  • Lack of the concept of energy services in the
    dominant discourse
  • Policy of energy pricing and the lack of
    environmental budget reform
  • Absence of energy efficiency lobby
  • Advantages and limits of local energy systems
  • Alternative ways of provision of energy services
  • How to reduce tensions between RES and
  • How to achieve better conflict management in the

The origins of the present conflict between
biodiversity and RES
  • Large biodiversity on small area
  • Geo-morfology ( increasing concentration of human
    settlements and activities on relatively scarce
    flat land) and transit nature of Slovenia as
    the area of trans European corridors for
    transport and energy
  • Origins within nature conservation paradigm
  • Dominance either or mind pattern
  • Protection of the nature against humans
    instead of with humans for the humans
  • Conservationist attitude of protection of
    biodiversity, natural values and traditional
    landscape together with weak capacities for
    assessment the relation between short term loses
    against long term gains (for example opposition
    to any human intervention in river bed although
    this might reduce the forthcoming down stream
    habitat risks due to more frequent and extensive
    droughts as a consequence of the climate change)
  • Weak capacities of nature protection, state of
    law and sanction capacities and consequently
    dominance of better not allow any human activity
    as to be in position not being able to sanction
    and abolish its eventual non-desired

The origins of the present conflict between
biodiversity and RES
  • The nature of RES local origin, (additional)
    intervention in nature, low energy density as
    compared to fossil fuels and uranium
  • The origins within energy sector
  • Dominance of centralised supply side fossil fuel
    based model and central large scale economy of
    scale subjected power plants
  • Political economy of power sector maintainance
    and development of state owned companies depends
    on central-plan of distribution of resources thus
    modernisation of capacities can only be achieved
    by expansion of the whole power system
  • Integration of renewable energy sources into
    economy of scale dominated supply side
    institutional designs and corporative state and
    para-state coalitions of actors
  • Values, imagination and expectations of the
    majority of consumers (cheap energy as
    prerequsite of development and progress,
    centralised state owned system as inavitabe
    determinant of reliable and affordable energy

Sate of the art and present trends in energy
  • Domination of supply side and electric power
    driven supply
  • Only formal separation of generation from trade
    and transmission with central power supply system
    (CPSS) and continuity of agreement economy of
    the dominant coalition of growth
  • Large share of trans-border electric power
    trading and following demands to expand
    transmission grids
  • State ownership of CPPS and para-state control
    over large energy utilities
  • Expansion conditioned (environmental)
    modernisation of CPPS plans for new power
    plants at otanj ( TE 600 MW-coal), Krko
    (1000 MW- nuclear), Middle Sava Region (200 500
    MW, coal, gas, wastes), Hdyro power plants chains
    at lower Sava river (180 MW- in construction),
    Mura and midle Sava ( , Storege power plant
    Avce (200 MW- in construction) and Kozjak (400 MW
    - in planing), gas PP Kidricevo (2 x 400 MW)
    ,wind farm at Primorska (200 MW), transmission
    grid Krko Bericevo, Cirkovce - Hungarian
    border and Kraj Udine (Italy)
  • Relatively high share of RES and RES-E however
    on the basis of low technology diversity
    (predomintely hydro PP and oldfashioned biomass
  • Weak and dis-organised actors out of central
    state owned supply system

State of the art in Slovenia
  • High energy intensity of the country
  • Per capita electric power consumption in Slovenia
    is well above EU 15 average
  • Relatively high security of energy supply,
    however for a price of low competitiveness and
    high environmental impacts (low quality domestic
  • The share of RES ( arround 10) and RES-E (30)
    is above EU 25 average
  • High growth of primary energy supply and at very
    first of electric power
  • Average electric power consumption was in the
    preriod 2002 2005 higher then GDP growth.
  • PE growth 2,8 /y respectively 15 (2000-2005)
  • Increased consumption of natural gas of 25,
    nuclear energy 24, solid fuels 13, RES 13,
    liquid fuels 8, Hydro -10, RES Hydro 3

Trends in energy sector in Slovenia
  • Fast growth of energy consumption at weak support
    to RES and RUE is not enabling achievement of
    neither Kyoto nor National Energy Program targets
    and is putting under question EU 2020 Action plan
  • At the recent growth (since 2000) in electricity
    consumption the capacities for covering
    domestic demand must be doubled till 2020!
  • Since 2005 the improvement of feed in tariff for
    RES E and high efficient natural gas base CHP has
    boosted investment in biogas and PV, however
    administrative barriers are preventing most of
    the small scale private investments.
  • Electricity from large hydro PP is RECS
    certificated, the cerificates are sold on EU
    market and domestic sells are increasing .
  • Green electricity trading is in its initial
    stage (trade marks of Zelena elektrika, Zelena
    energija and Modra energija) and pooling of
    qualified RES-E producers has started
  • Due to higher market price and weak Slovene wood
    manufacturing industry more and more high quality
    wood biomass is exported thus the conflict
    between material and energy use of wood biomass
    in the country is escalating.

National Energy Program RUE and RES targets
  • Till 2010
  • RUE in all sectors energy efficiency (EE)
    increase of 10
  • RUE in pubic sector EE increase of 15
  • co-generation doubling of energy generation
  • RES in primary energy increase of share from 8
    to 12
  • RES - heat increase from 22 to
  • RES- Electric power increase from
    32,0 to 33,6
  • RES - transport 2 share of
    biofuels in 2005
  • Assessed support needed 580 mio 400 mio
  • Except maybe CHP target non of the targets will
    be achieved!

Lack of concept of energy services in the
dominant discourse on energy
  • Energy policy documents are speaking at very
    first on security of supply with energy,
    somehow less on competitiveness and environmental
    friendliness of energy supply and very rear on
    sustainable energy services.
  • Analysis of discourse shows contradiction between
    market-liberal rethorics and corporativist
  • The role of consumer is in best case limited to
    choose of the best energy supplier.
  • Contrary to this the concept of energy services
    demands from consumer to optimise his/hers energy
    services with his/hers values by combining
    different actions, technologies and suppliers to
    achieve best performance according to the
    different criteria (price, quality, comfort,
    environmental impacts etc.)
  • ENERGY SERVICES (examples)
  • Corresponding room temperature for work/leisure
  • Corresponding illumination of rooms
  • Providing capacities for mobility and
  • Operation of machines and appliances

  • Most of the strategic goals of Slovenia is more
    or less in line with those of EU, however there
    are also some evident misconceptions whereas EC
    Green book on energy speaks about mastering and
    reducing energy demand in households and
    transport the Slovene documents are only speaking
    about supply of energy for growing demand
  • Preparation of analytical and strategic
    baselines for National development program 2007-
    2013 from the perspective of sustainable
    development and .... Oikos d.o.o., November 2005,
    page 16 17
  • Commission assesses progress with reform to boost
    growth and jobs in Slovenia
  • In addition, according to the Commission, it will
    be important for Slovenia to focus on setting
    concrete and realistic targets for investment in
    RD improving the effectiveness of the new
    Office for Growth and of the Slovenian Technology
    Agency …. better promotion of environmental
    technologies and energy efficiency shortening
    start-up times for businesses and reducing
    related costs integrating young people in the
    labour market….
    geen http//

The policy of energy pricing and lack of
environmental budget reform
  • Large industrial consumers and households
    (captured customers) are paying considerably
    lower prices compared to EU 25 average, that are
    in some case below the production price while
    this is not the case for most of industry
  • Energy (at very first electric power) pricing is
    the instrument for
  • Maintenance of the consensus that cheap energy is
    precondition for development and quality of live
  • Maintenance of the dominant role of centralised
    energy supply systems and large energy utilities,
  • Achievement of anti-inflation and EU monetary
    convergency goals
  • Energy and energy carriers in Slovenia are
    subjected to low taxation
  • Excise duties on liquid fuels are on the lowest
    allowed EU margine
  • Slovenia applied transition period in
    implementing minimal (and very low) excise duty
    on electric power
  • Use of domestic coal is exempted from CO2 tax
  • CO2 tax is not recycled to support RES and RUE
    investments in spite of decision of Parliament
    from March 2004 (approval of National energy
  • Budget support remains at 40 mio EUR/y,
    Parliament voted for increase to 500 mio/y

Strucutral weakness of bio-divesity friendly
actors and corporativist nature of policy
  • Energy conservation and energy efficiency lobby
    at the EU level is weak compared to coal, nuclear
    and even RES lobby, however in Slovenia is not
    organised whereas most of the RES intiatives are
    trapped into expansion plans of existing fossil
    fuel based and/or old large hydro utilities.
  • Actors from the fields of RUE, energy
    conservation and distributed power in Slovenia
    are dispersed, not organised and not capable to
    articulate and present their (common) interests.
  • Decision making process, design of policy arenas
    and policy style are not in favour of
    decentralised, small scale and participatory
    development patterns but are in favour of large
    scale (state and para state) actors and large
    supply side options.
  • The policy making process is exclusive to the
    experts and NGOs that are not supporting in
    advanced the project that has been tailored
    according to the narrow interests of investors
  • Within this framework most of the RES projects
    are in conflict with protection of bio-diversty,
    landscape protection and principles of Aarhus

Consensus on support to RES can be acchieved in
building sector
  • Energy retrofitting of old buildings plus energy
    efficient/passive/energy plus new buildings
  • Reduced demand on energy
  • No demand on new (rural) space
  • Integration of local RES
  • Increased added value
  • Increased (local) employment
  • Increased quality of energy services
  • Reduced long term energy spendings
  • Development of SMEs
  • Industrial development
  • Increased export potential

How to reduce conflict potential between RES and
biodiverstiy in Slovenia?
  • Conceptual shift from energy supply to provision
    of (sustainable) energy services is needed,
  • Strategic shift from central toward local supply
    chains and systems is needed, too.
  • Investment risks should be also in energy sector
    taken by private investors (privatisation) while
    the competences and capacities of independent
    regulatory and sanction bodies should be
  • Gradual internalisation of external social and
    environmental costs of energy use and
    environmental budget reform could be supportive
    to reduction of the conflict potential
  • Better awareness raising on global environmental
    footprint of fossil fuels and impacts of
    extraction of fossil fuels for the people in
    third world
  • Shift in values, role of consumers and capacities
    to imagine alternative ways of providing energy
  • Creation of national golden standards for RES
    and RES-E (or adaptation of international
    standards to national circumstances) by
    participation of nature and landscape protection
  • Reduction of administrative barriers for RES but
    stregnthened monitoring control and sanction
    capacities in the field of heath, environmental
    and nature protection.

How to improve conflict management?
  • Retreat of fundamentalist discourses (a-priory
    negative statements towards RES sources and/or
  • De-construction of the Other (capability to see
    the opponent not as it was constructed from our
    perspective to fight with him, i.e. Not as an
  • Integration of effected already in the phase of
    definition of the issue and consensus building on
    the issue.
  • Integration of effected in preparatory,
    decision making, implementation and evaluation
  • Improvement of transparency, access to
    information and access to independent expertise
  • Better control and sanction capacities in the
    field of environmental/nature protection
  • Changes of the concept and strategy of nature
    protection in the country?
  • Changes of energy and transport policies
    (environmental) modernisation of central supply
    system (in energy) and personal car transport
    systems without their expansion, development of
    local energy, energy services market and
    inter-modality (in transport sector)
  • Respecting subsidiarity principle in conflit

  • Conflict is not always bad it could be a
    starting point for better solutions.
  • Except in integration of RES in energy services
    in buildings and integration of RES in energy
    generation in urban settlements the conflict
    between RES and biodiversity will be in most
    cases present. Thus the primary sector of RES
    should be in buildings and in local energy
  • RES can have a significant impact on reduction
    of GHG emissions thus they can also contribute to
    preservation of bio-diversty on the global level.
    This global positive effect can however not
    justify loosing of nature protection standards or
    their violation.
  • Actual cultural and institutional set up in
    Slovenia together with both energy and nature
    protection policy is leading toward escalation of
    conflicts between RES and biodiversity in the
  • Contrary to strategy of increasing environmental
    and nature protection administrative bariers in
    order to prevent potentially biodiversity harmful
    projects the administrative barriers for
    investors should be reduced and investments
    encuraged by positive spatial planning policy
    (RES zones and zones with case sensitive
    nature protection regimes) whereas at the same
    time public participation, monitoring, control
    and sanction capacities should be stranghtened.