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Chapter 3 Objective and Subjective Factors Shaping Tourism

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Title: Chapter 3 Objective and Subjective Factors Shaping Tourism


1
Chapter 3 Objective and Subjective Factors
Shaping Tourism
  • Learning Objectives
  • Explain the objective factors
  • Explain the effects of cultural background on
    travel decisions.
  • Explain the effects of time income on travel
    decisions.
  • Explain the effects of socio-economic background
    on travel decisions.
  • Explain the effects of psychographic background
    on travel decisions.
  • Explain the subjective factorsMotivations

2
Overview
  • The objective factors
  • The effects of TIME on travel
  • The effects of INCOME on travel
  • Other SOCIOECONOMIC variables effects on travel
  • The effects of CULTURE on travel
  • The effect of PERSONALITY on travel
  • Other forces
  • Why people travel? (reasons)
  • Motivation
  • Pull motivation Push motivation
  • Motivation theories and implications
  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • The travel career ladder (TCL Pearce 1988, 1991,
    1993)
  • Iso-Aholas (1982) optimal arousal theory
  • Plogs (1974) allocentric-psychocentric theory.

3
Barriers to Travel
1. Cost 2. Lack of time 3. Health
limitations 4. Family stage 5. Fear and safety
6. Lack of interest
4
The effects of TIME on travel
  • Time can be spent in one of three ways
  • Work
  • Maintenance activities that are necessary to
    sustain and maintain life, such as eating,
    sleeping, maintaining the house.
  • Leisure the time remaining after work and
    maintenance activities have been completed.

5
Vacation time as of July 2003
6
The effects of TIME on travel
  • Chinas situation?
  • To meet the growing demand for leisure travel
    among Chinas own citizens and to encourage
    personal consumption for economic growth, the
    central government has issued a number of
    policies to promote tourism.
  • In 1992, weeklong holidays were first introduced
  • In 1995, a five-day work week was introduced
  • Starting in 1999, three weeklong holidays were
    established around May 1(May Day/Labor Day),
    October 1 (National Day), and the lunar Spring
    Festival of Chinese New Year.
  • Starting in 2008, only two weeklong holidays were
    remained around October 1 (National Day), and the
    lunar Spring Festival of Chinese New Year.

7
The effects of INCOME on travel
8
The effects of INCOME on travel
  • Personal Income
  • An individual's total annual gross earnings
    coming from wages, business enterprises and
    various investments.
  • Income tax
  • A tax levied on net personal or business income.
  • A tax on any money earned during a fiscal year,
    usually filed on a yearly basis.
  • Disposable Income
  • The amount of income left after paying taxes.
  • Discretionary Income
  • The amount of an individual's income that is left
    for spending after the essentials have been taken
    care of.
  • Individual income that is not allocated for
    necessary items such as food and shelter.
  • Dual Income, No Kids - DINKS
  • A household in which there are two incomes and no
    children.
  • DINKS are often the target of marketing efforts
    for luxury items such as expensive cars and
    vacations.

9
Personal income in the United States
Personal income for the population age 25 or
older.
Source http//www.answers.com/topic/personal-inco
me-in-the-united-states
10
Income in the United States
SOURCE US Census Bureau, 2006 http//www.answers
.com/topic/personal-income-in-the-united-states
11
Other SOCIOECONOMIC variables effects
  • Age
  • Generational influence
  • Sex
  • Education
  • Life cycle stages

12
Class model regarding the social structure of the
United States.
This particular model was introduced by William
Thompson and Joseph Hickey in Society in Focus in
2005.
13
The effects of CULTURE on travel
  • Culture can be defined as a set of beliefs,
    values, attitudes, habits, and forms of behavior
    that are shared by a society and are transmitted
    from generation to generation.

14

The effects of culture on travel
  • Hofstede found the value patterns vary along
    four main dimensions
  • Power Distance (social hierarchy, formality)
  • Individualism vs Collectivism
  • (individual/group achievements)
  • The closeness of the relationship between one
    person and other persons.
  • Femininity vs Masculinity (social roles)
  • Uncertainty Avoidance (ambiguity)
  • How to deal with the uncertainty of future
  • The role of opinion leaders is strong and safety
    is important in high scoring countries.

Hofstede (1980, 2001)
15
Evidence for Different Work Values across
Cultures
16
Country Cluster and their Value Systems
Source Jackofsky, Slocum McQuaid (1988).
Cultural Values and the CEO Alluring
Companions?, The Academy of Management
Executive, Vol 11(1), 39-49 Original Source
Hofstede, G. (1980a). Cultures Consequences
International Differences in Work-Related Values,
Beverly Hills, California Sage Publications
17
The effect of PERSONALITY on travel
  • Introverts (introverted)
  • look into themselves and tend to be shy and
    reserved.
  • Extroverts (extroverted)
  • Are other-oriented, looking outside the self, and
    tending to be objective rather than subjective in
    outlook.
  • People from the East prefer dependable types of
    travel while people from the West prefer more
    venturesome types of travel

18
Other External Factors Impacting Tourism
  • Political stability
  • Energy prices rising directly affects consumer
    disposable income
  • Exchange rate
  • The Canadian dollar is expected to stay on par
    with current levels.
  • Outbound Canadian travel will remain strong.
  • Public health issue SARS,H1N1 flu

19
Tourism Motivations
  • Robert W. McIntosh, Charles R. Goeldner, JR Brent
    Ritchie (1995) proposed four basic tourism
    motivations in their book named Tourism
    Principles, Practices and Philosophies
  • Physical
  • Cultural
  • Interpersonal
  • Status and prestige

20
Motivation
  • Motivation the drive to satisfy needs and wants,
    both physiological and psychological through the
    purchase and use of products and services.
  • Push motivations internal, socio-psychological
    motivations that predispose the individual to
    travel. (whether to go?)
  • Pull motivation external motivations that
    attract the individual to a specific destination
    once the decision to travel has been made.
  • (where to go?)

21
Push and Pull factors
  • People travel because they are pushed by
    physiological, psychological, intangible and
    internal factors and people travel also because
    they are pulled by the unique things a
    destination features, such as image, recreation
    facilities, education, appreciating scenery,
    safety, gambling and foods.

22
Motivational Push Items
23
Motivational pull items
24
Motivation theories
  • The present research concentrates on the
    development, modification, and potential
    enhancement of one of the existing theories of
    tourist motivation.
  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • The travel career ladder (TCL Pearce 1988, 1991,
    1993)
  • Iso-Aholas (1982) optimal arousal theory
  • Plogs (1974) allocentric-psychocentric theory.

25
Maslows Theory
  • Sought to explain why people are driven by
    particular needs at particular times
  • Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy
  • When the important need is satisfied, it stops
    being a motivator

26
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
27
Maslows hierarchy of needs
  • According to Maslow there are five needs forming
    a hierarchy. Maslows needs and their order of
    priority are
  • Physiological -- food, water, shelter,
    reproduction
  • Safety -- stability, security, structure
  • Love -- affiliation, affection, sense of
    belonging
  • Esteem -- success, self worth, achievement
  • Self-actualization -- self fulfillment,
    personal growth

Maslows suggested that a person will be
motivated to fulfill a higher level need only if
lower needs have already been fulfilled.
28
The travel career ladder
  • Pearces Travel Career Ladder is based on a
    hierarchy of travel motives and builds on
    Maslows model (in Pearce et al., 1998).
  • Each person has a travel career just as they
    have a work career.
  • People start their travel careers at different
    levels during their travel careers.
  • Broadly, the TCL theory proposed that people
    progress upward through the levels of motivation
    when accumulating travel experiences.
  • Peoples travel decisions and decision-making
    processes are not static they change over a
    persons lifetime based on their travel
    experiences.

29
The travel needs ladder
30
Optimal Arousal Theory
  • Optimal Arousal Theory, also named two
    dimensional theory of tourist motivation, is
    developed by S. E. Iso-Aholas.
  • The basic principle behind the optimal arousal
    theory is that a person seeks out a level of
    stimulation that is best for him/her as an
    individual. If a persons life is too quiet, the
    person may seek out stimulation through activity.
    If too much is happening in a persons world,
    then the person seeks to cut off stimulation and
    find a quieter environment.
  • Tourism provides an excellent means of
    accommodating a persons need for an optimal
    level of stimulation. Someone whose day-to-day
    life is overbearing may choose to visit a remote,
    peaceful setting to counter the pressures of home
    and work. Someone whose work and life are boring
    may want a vacation that supplies adventure and
    excitement.

31
Iso-Aholas theory of seeking and escaping
Source Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1984). Social
psychological foundations of leisure and
resultant implications for leisure counseling. In
Leisure counseling concepts and applications, E.
T. Dowd, ed., pp. 97-125. Springfield, IL
Charles C. Thomas.
32
Plogs allocentric-psychocentric theory
  • Psychocentric-allocentric model
  • This work was historically important in
    providing one organizing theory of travel
    motivation.
  • It offers only a single trait a static and
    extrinsic account of tourist motivation
  • It is not of universal application
  • It is limited by its formulation in the tourism
    context of the early 1970s

33
Plogs distribution of psychological
segments-five types personality
Plog (1973) used a psychometric scale to
categories tourists into allocentric, mid-centric
and psychocentric, depending on individual's
relative focus on their own culture and the one
they are visiting. Psychocentrics tourists like
good facilities nice swimming pools
well-organized trip pub lunches.
34
Plogs distribution of psychological segments
The personality scale helps to explain why
destinations rise and fall in popularity. In
particular, tourists personality characteristics
determine their travel patterns and preferences.
Resource Stanley Plog, Why destination areas
rise and fall in popularity, Cornell Hotel and
Restaurant Administration Quarterly Jun 2001
42, 3 ABI/INFORM Global, pg. 13
35
Psychographic positions of destinations (1972)
Psychocentric Conservative in travel pattern,
prefer safe destinations. Allocentric
Adventurous and discover , prefer new
destinations.
Resource Stanley Plog, Why destination areas
rise and fall in popularity, Cornell Hotel and
Restaurant Administration Quarterly Jun 2001
42, 3 ABI/INFORM Global, pg. 13
36
Psychographic positions of destinations (2001)
Resource Stanley Plog, Why destination areas
rise and fall in popularity, Cornell Hotel and
Restaurant Administration Quarterly Jun 2001
42, 3 ABI/INFORM Global, pg. 13
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