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Rain Gardens Part of the Solution to Storm Water Problems

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Title: Rain Gardens Part of the Solution to Storm Water Problems


1
Rain Gardens Part of the Solution to Storm
Water Problems
  • Prepared by
  • Roger Bannerman
  • WDNR

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Increases in Urban Runoff for Lake Mendota from
2000 to 2020
  • Amounts of Urban Runoff for 2000
  • 5,600,000,000 gallons or 17,000 acre-feet
  • Amounts of Urban Runoff for 2020
  • 8,800,000,000 gallons or 27,500 acre-feet
  • (Increase of 57)

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Impacts of Imperviousness on Surface and
Groundwater Quantities
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The Runoff Management Rules
  • Presentation by the
  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

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Post Construction Infiltration Performance
Standards
  • By design, infiltrate sufficient runoff volume
    so that the post-development average annual
    infiltration volume shall be a portion of
    pre-development infiltration volume.
  • Residential Non-residential
  • 90 (1 Cap) 60 (2 Cap)

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The Problem Conventional Site Design Collect

Concentrate
Convey

Centralized
Control
Good Drainage Paradigm
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Conventional Pipe and Pond Centralized Control
Efficiency
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Distributed Small-scale Controls
Maintaining Natural Hydrology Functions
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Hydrograpgh Pre/ Post Development
Post-Development (Higher Peak, More Volume, and
Earlier Peak Time)
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Pre-development
Detention
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Partnership for Rain Gardens
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Maplewood, Minnesota (near St. Paul) Rain
gardens installed by city as part of street
replacement project
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Runoff Volume by Landuse for 4 Subwatersheds
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Bioretention in Residential Right-of-way 34
Reduction in Annual Runoff
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Annual Runoff Volumes from Source Areas in 4
Subwatersheds
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Rain Gardens on Residential Lawns 15 Reduction
in Annual Runoff
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Sources of Annual Runoff Volume in Medium Density
Residential
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100 Control Lawn and Roof Runoff 300 sq.ft.
of Garden
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Plant List for Backyard Rain Gardens
  • Shade Garden
  • Jacobs Ladder
  • Celandine Poppy
  • Shorts Aster
  • Zig-Zag Goldenrod
  • Middle Big Garden
  • Blue Flag Iris
  • Purple Cone Flower
  • Shooting Star
  • Sweet Black-eyed Su.
  • Smooth Penstemon
  • Heartleaf Blue Aster
  • Ohio Goldenrod
  • Fire Pink
  • Silky Wild Rye
  • Northern Sea Oats

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Value of Using Native Plants
  • Deeper roots absorbs more water
  • Uses no fertilizer
  • Uses little or no pesticides
  • Easy maintenance after first year
  • Does not require watering in droughts after
    establishment

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Lake Delton, Wisconsin
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Annual Runoff Volume by Source Area for St
Francis
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Elements of Low Impact Design for St. Francis
Development
  • Rain Gardens
  • Infiltration Trenches in Street Boulevards
  • Two Regional Infiltration Basins
  • Reduce Street Width from 36 to 32 Feet
  • Protection of Riparian Buffer
  • Steve Apfelbaum Applied Ecological Services

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Infiltration Goals for Area 4 at St Francis
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Levels of Control for Each Infiltration Device in
Area 4
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West Bend, WI
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Percent Runoff Volume by Source Area for Cedar
Hills
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Elements of Low Impact Design for Cedar Hills
Development
  • Grass Swales
  • Detention Pond
  • Infiltration Basin
  • Reduce Street Width (From 36 to 33 feet park
    one side of street)

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Joyce Powers CRM Ecosystems Prairie Ridge
Nursery
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Prairie Nursery
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Reductions Goals in Runoff Volume for Cedar Hills
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Volume Reduction Estimates for Practices at Cedar
Hills
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Benefits of Rain Garden
  • Help Protect and Restore Natural Hydrology of
    Your Watershed
  • Trap Pollutants
  • Attract Birds and Butterflies
  • Attractive Addition to Property
  • Enhance Beauty of City

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How Big to Make the Rain Garden
  • How deep to make rain garden?
  • What type of soil is at the site?
  • What is the area draining to the rain garden?

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Rain Garden Size Any size will provide some
benefit most between 70 and 300 square feet
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Rain Garden Depth
  • Balance Between Depth and Surface Area
  • Minimize drain time less than 1 day.
  • Minimize digging.
  • Suggest depths between 3 to 8 inches

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Selection of Rain Garden Depth Slope Very
Important
  • Slope lt 4 3 to 5 inches deep.
  • Slope of 5 to 7 6 to 7 inches deep.
  • Slope of 8 to 12 about 8 inches deep.
  • Slope gt 12 suggest another site.

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Importance of Soil Type
  • Higher the Infiltration Rate the Smaller the Rain
    Garden Surface Area.
  • Infiltration Rate of Sandy Soils 2.5 in/hr
  • Infiltration Rate of Silty Soils 0.5 in/ hr
  • Infiltration Rate of Clayey Soils 0.3 in/hr

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Determination of Soil Type
  • Best method is to have soil analyzed.
  • Use soil map not too dependable because of
    possible disturbed soils in construction area.
  • Use feel of soil.
  • Do perk test six inches deep

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Size of Drainage Area
Question Is the rain garden treating rooftop and
lawn or just rooftop runoff?
Alexopoulos Clausen
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Calculation of Drainage Area
  • Example Calculation
  • Length 100 feet
  • Width 20 feet
  • L X W 2000 sq feet
  • 2000 sq. ft. / 4 500 square feet
  • Size of Roof

Length
Width
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Size Factors for Rain Gardens Less Than 30 feet
from Downspout 100 Control
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Garden Size Calculation for Silty Soils and 4
Inch Depth
  • Size of Rooftop Draining to Garden X Size
    Factor Size of Garden
  • 500 square feet X 0.34 170 square feet
  • Shape 10 feet X 17 feet

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Size Factors for Rain Gardens More Than 30 Feet
from Downspout 100 Control
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Variation in Rain Garden Size with Percent
Reduction in Annual Runoff
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Size of Bannerman Rain Garden
  • Size 180 square feet or 30 of roof area.
  • Depth is about 3.5 inches.
  • Volume of Garden is about 55 cubic feet or it
    holds about 400 gallons of water.
  • Volume is equal to the runoff from a 1 inch
    rainfall. Controls 60 of annual roof runoff.
  • Infiltration rate is about 2 inches/hour

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Keith Baker Lawson Ridge Native Landscaping
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Jennifer Baker Prairie Nursery
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List of Plants in Bannerman Rain Garden
  • Blue False Indigo
  • Red Milkweed
  • Nodding Pink Onion
  • Prairie Blazing Star
  • Sq. Stemmed Sticky Monkey
  • Sweet Black-Eyed Susan
  • Ohio Goldenrod
  • Prairie Dropseed
  • Early summer
  • Summer
  • Summer
  • Summer
  • Summer
  • Fall
  • Fall
  • All

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Deep Tilling
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Maintenance of Rain Gardens
  • First year requires vigilant weeding.
  • Some watering at first, especially plants on
    berm.
  • Dead plant debris should be removed in the spring.

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Cost of Rain Gardens
  • Cost of Landscape Contract in Dane County is
    about 12 to 15 per Square Foot. Includes
    Design, Construction, Plants, and Planting.

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TRADITIONAL SUBDIVISION
BMP STUDY AREA
J O R D A N C O V E U R B A N W A T E R S H E
D P R O J E C T Waterford, Connecticut
J. Alexopoulos J. Clausen This
project is funded in part by the CT DEP through
the US EPA Nonpoint Source grant under 319 of
the Clean Water Act
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BIORETENTION GARDEN
LOW MOW AREA
BIORETENTION SWALE
BIORETENTION BASIN
Segmented Pavers
CONSERVATION ZONE
J O R D A N C O V E U R B A N W A T E R S H E
D P R O J E C T Waterford, Connecticut
J. Alexopoulos J. Clausen
D. Gerwick, Engineering This project is funded
in part by the CT DEP through the US EPA Nonpoint
Source grant under 319 of the Clean Water Act
BMP STUDY AREA
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Site Criteria for Bioretention in Lodi WDOT
(John Voorhees)
  • Max Drainage Area
  • Slopes

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Cell A
Cell B
Cell C
Bioretention Lodi, WI WDOT (John Voorhees)
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Lodi Design Criteria Soil Mix Gravel Bed and
Underdrain
Growing Media
Underdrain Pipe Discharge to Creek
Aggregate for Water Storage
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Partnership for Rain Gardens
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Partnership for Rain Gardens
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Partnership for Rain Gardens
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Partnership for Rain Gardens
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