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Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program


A comprehensive industry-government cooperative research ... Audi. Behr. BMW. DaimlerChrysler. Delphi. Denso. DuPont. Ford. Fujikoki. General Motors. Goodyear ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program

Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile
Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program
  • Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems

Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC)
  • Announced April 22, 2004
  • A comprehensive industry-government cooperative
    research program to responsibly manage all
    aspects of lifetime vehicle air conditioner
    environmental performance
  • Develop and demonstrate improved vehicle air
    conditioners using HFC-134a refrigerant
  • Add to customer value
  • Improve recovery and recycling of refrigerant
    during service and vehicle end-of-life disposal
  • Participants include international automobile and
    air conditioner system manufacturers, component
    and equipment suppliers, refrigerant
    manufacturers, MAC service providers and the
    Environmental Protection Agency

Current 27 Corporate Sponsors
  • Ineous Fluor
  • Japan Fluor Mfg Assoc
  • Manuli
  • Modine
  • Nissan
  • Parker Hannifin
  • Sanden
  • Schrader-Bridgeport
  • Solvay
  • TI Automotive
  • Toyota
  • Trelleborg
  • Viking Plastics
  • Visteon
  • Arkema (Autofina)
  • Audi
  • Behr  
  • BMW
  • DaimlerChrysler  
  • Delphi 
  • Denso 
  • DuPont 
  • Ford  
  • Fujikoki
  • General Motors
  • Goodyear
  • Honeywell  

Project Goals
Team 4 Containment During Service Disposal
Team 1 50 Leakage Reduction
Team 2 30 Efficiency Improvement
Demonstration Vehicles 2005/2006
Team 3 30 Load Reduction
IMAC Program Objectives
  • Reduce direct HFC-134a refrigerant emissions
    that leak from MACs
  • Reduce indirect emissions, which are emissions
    related to the burning of fuel needed to power
    the air conditioner
  • Reduce any other emissions during the
    manufacture, installation, operation, servicing
    and disposal of the system
  • Provide a directly comparative engineering
  • Existing and improved technologies
  • Vehicle and system design
  • Servicing of systems

Project Organization
  • Overall Project Management
  • Financial Oversight
  • Funding strategy
  • Educate management

Tier One
Tier Two
Vehicle Load
  • Members
  • Tier 1 suppliers
  • Tier 2 suppliers
  • OEMs
  • MACS and Members
  • EPA
  • Refrigerant Suppliers
  • Other
  • Members
  • OEMs
  • Tier 1 suppliers
  • NREL
  • EPA
  • Universitys
  • Other
  • Members
  • OEMs
  • Tier 1 suppliers
  • NREL
  • Universitys
  • Other
  • Members
  • OEMs
  • Tier 1 suppliers
  • EPA
  • MACS and members
  • Other
  • OEM Advisors
  • GM
  • Ford
  • D-C

To advise in case of proprietary technologies
IMAC Project Teams
Team 1 Refrigerant Leakage Reduction
  • Goal
  • Reduce HFC-134a Mobile Air Conditioning System
    refrigerant direct emissions by 50

Team 1 Progress to Date
  • Identified 4 current production vehicles to
    baseline for refrigerant leakage rate
  • Dodge Caravan (dual system)
  • Ford F150
  • Toyota Camry
  • GM W Car

Team 1 Progress to Date
  • Evaluated mini-shed tests to establish
    refrigerant system direct emissions
  • Evaluating assembly plant noise factors
    regarding assembly of system components free of
    contamination, damage, etc.

Team 1 2006 Plan
  • Develop SAE Standard for component and system
    mini-shed test
  • Develop SAE Standard for reclaim procedure to
    determine actual vehicle charge level
  • Evaluate new low emissions technologies per

Team 1 Description of Technologies
  • Improved crimps
  • Improved fittings
  • Compressor shaft seal and body seals
  • Hose permeation
  • Material integrity-tubing
  • Reduced number of joints
  • TXV
  • Transducer/switches
  • Service valves/caps
  • Manufacturing/Assembly specifications
  • Leakage Test Procedure
  • Robust Manufacturing/Assembly Procedures

Team 2 System Efficiency
  • Goal
  • Improve system COP by 30 over the enhanced R134a
    system that was demonstrated in the SAE Phase 1
    Alternative Refrigerant Cooperative Research
    Program (ARCRP)
  • Demonstrate equivalent performance

Team 2 Deliverables
  • Demonstrate COP improvement on a System Test
  • Demonstrate equal performance in a Vehicle Tunnel
  • SAE J Standard for Measurement of System COP
    using the System Test Stand Approach
  • SAE J Standard for Annualized Climate Calculation
    of System Power Loss
  • Relative Cost / Benefit Analysis
  • Cost will be relative on a 1-10 scale
  • Benefit will be COP improvement over the enhanced
    R134a ARCRP system

Team 2 2005 Plans
  • System Stand
  • Improved sub-cooling control (condenser)
  • Improved superheat control (evaporator)
  • Improved compressor efficiency
  • Internal (suction/liquid) heat exchangers
  • Vehicle
  • Sub-cooling and superheat algorithm development
  • A/C performance demonstration

Team 2 2006 Plans
  • System Stand
  • Next generation condensers (pending availability)
  • Next generation evaporators (pending
  • Alternative compressor designs (pending
  • Best of the Best combination
  • Vehicle
  • Continue system development
  • A/C performance demonstration
  • Develop J Standards
  • Develop Cost/Benefit Matrix

Team 2 Progress to Date
  • Condenser sub-cooling control study shows
    potential for 20-30 improved COP at low loads
    (achieving control in a vehicle system is an open
  • Evaporator superheat control study shows
    potential for 20 improved COP at low loads
  • Improved efficiency compressor study shows
    potential for 15 improved COP (climate weighted)
  • Achieving the 30 improvement goal is promising
    but the individual effects may not be additive

Team 3 Vehicle Load Reduction
  • Goal
  • Demonstrate vehicle level technologies that
    reduce the cooling load by 30

Team 3 Progress to Date
  • Tested the impact of various technologies on soak
  • Power ventilation device
  • Solar reflective glazing
  • Lightweight insulation
  • Sunscreen for windshield
  • Plan to test additional technologies
  • Lightweight seats
  • Solar reflective paints
  • Developing a computer model at the National
    Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) to estimate a
    technologys impact on time to comfort and power

NREL vehicle Model
Solar Radiation
Cabin Thermal/Fluid
Air Conditioning
Thermal Comfort
Fuel Economy Emissions
Cooling Capacity A/C Power
Occupant Thermal Comfort
Team 3 Deliverables
  • Procedure for evaluation of technology
  • Develop a ranking of approximate cost/benefits
    for various technologies
  • Evaluation of technologies in laboratory and
  • Demonstration vehicle for 2006 Phoenix Meeting
  • Communication and education materials

Team 4 Reduction in Refrigerant Loss During
  • Goals
  • Evaluate and Recommend Improvements for Service
    Tools, Equipment (New or Revised Standards) and
    Service Procedures
  • Identify, Quantify and Propose Remedies for
    Refrigerant Losses at Service, Vehicle End of
  • Quantify and Address Losses from One-Way
    Refrigerant Containers
  • Produce Educational Materials and Conduct
    Outreach to Reduce Refrigerant Emissions

Team Four Service Progress Plans
  • Leak detection tools, procedures
  • Writing standards for next generation of tools
  • Detection at 4 grams per joint/year
  • (Current standard 14 grams)
  • Probe distance 3/8 (now ¼)
  • Real world testing for standard

Team Four Service Progress Plans
  • Service equipment, procedures
  • Testing has shown that current recovery
    equipment/procedures leaves refrigerant in system
  • Developing standard for next generation of
  • Different recovery procedures needed for
    different types of systems

Team Four Service Progress Plans
  • 3. Flexible coupled hose assemblies
  • Conduct lab testing to evaluate field coupled
    assemblies for leakage
  • Develop a cost-effective means of field
    evaluation of assemblies

Team Four Service Progress Plans
  • Analytical tool to evaluate
  • service procedures
  • SAE Service Technology Group Activity
  • Focus on leak detection diagnosis
  • 5. Refrigerant mass balance
  • Data collection to identify and quantify the
    sources of all lifetime R-134a emissions

Team Four Service Progress Plans
  • 6. Vehicle end of life
  • Partnership with Automotive Recyclers Association
  • Raise awareness in this sector
  • Develop strategies to improve vehicle EOL
    refrigerant recovery

Actual/Forecast Funding vs. Original Plans
  • Original 2004 announcement over 3 million in
    cash and in-kind contributions
  • Program on track to surpass initial funding plan

Status After One Year
  • All 4 teams are operational and making progress
  • Industry participation is high
  • The program is on track to meet scope, funding
    and technical targets