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Posture and Body Mechanics

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Compare anterior, posterior, and lateral views. Body bisected ... Bisect malleoli. Faults in the extremities: Medial longitudinal arch. Height of navicular ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Posture and Body Mechanics


1
Posture and Body Mechanics
  • CHAPTER 11

2
Posture
  • Relative alignment of body segments
  • Allows efficient and effective movement
  • Small changes overtime reduce efficiency
  • Static standing posture reference point
  • Plumb line

3
Assessing alignment
  • Standing alignment
  • Compare anterior, posterior, and lateral views
  • Body bisected
  • ASIS and PSIS connected with horizontal line
  • Sitting alignment
  • Hips and knees at 90/90
  • Seat depth behind knees
  • Chair back support lumbar and thoracic spines
  • Lumbar roll enhancement
  • Chair arms at 90
  • Wrists in neutral if using keyboard
  • Head not forward
  • Shoulders not rounded

4
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5
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6
Pathological alignment
  • Developed from bad habits
  • Best posture observed in small children
  • Causes shortening and lengthening of paired
    structures
  • Abnormal alignment measured relatively
  • Misalignment causes compensation

7
Lumbar lordosis
  • Swayback
  • Anterior pelvic tilt
  • Tight hip flexors
  • Weak LB extensors and abdominals
  • Fascia tight
  • Stress on anterior longitudinal ligament
  • Narrowing of vertebral spaces
  • Nerve compression

8
Flat lumbar spine
  • Posterior pelvic tilt
  • Little lordosis
  • Hip extensors and rectus abdominus tight
  • Weak hip flexors and LB extensors
  • Spine loses ability to absorb stress
  • Stress on posterior longitudinal ligament

9
Kyphosis
  • Hunchback
  • Chest muscles tight
  • Erector spinae, rhomboids, and trapezius weak
  • Scapulae will be more than 2 from spinous
    processes
  • Can lead to TOC

10
Flat thoracic spine
  • Not common!
  • Exaggerated attention posture
  • Depressed scapulae
  • Flat neck
  • Tight erector spinae and scapular retractors
  • Weak protractors and anterior thoracic muscles
  • Can lead to TOC

11
Scoliosis
  • Lateral curvature of spine
  • Leg length discrepancies
  • Unlevel pelvic landmarks
  • Longer lower medial arch
  • Congenital deformities
  • Long-term unilateral activities
  • Tissue tight on side of concavity
  • Also nerve impingement
  • Tissue weak on convex side
  • Also increased ligament stress
  • Dont confuse with lateral shift

12
Head forward posture
  • Common compensation in the elderly
  • Dowagers hump
  • Can also lead to TMJ problems

13
Faults in the extremities
  • Coxa valga
  • Coxa vara
  • Anteversion
  • Hip medial rotation
  • Squinting patellae
  • Decreased stability
  • Retroversion
  • Hip lateral rotation
  • Frogs or grasshopper eye
  • Increased stability

14
Faults in the extremities
  • Genu valgus/valgum
  • Weak quads
  • Excessive foot pronation
  • Genu varus/varum
  • High arches
  • Genu recurvatum
  • With lumbar lordosis and anterior pelvic tilt
  • Tibial torsion
  • Measured with patient in supine
  • Bisect malleoli

15
Faults in the extremities
  • Medial longitudinal arch
  • Height of navicular
  • Peas planus
  • Pes cavus
  • Claw and hammer toes
  • Shoulder rounding
  • Dorsal hand plancement
  • GH implingement
  • Weak scapular rotators
  • Tight anterior shoulder muscles

16
Muscle imbalances
  • Causes
  • Bad posture and/or pain
  • Loss of flexibility/shortening of muscles
  • Sports
  • That emphasize anterior muscles
  • Unilateral activities
  • Joint abnormalities
  • Hypermobile vs. hypomobile
  • Injuries
  • Treatment
  • Lengthen tight side
  • Strengthen weak side
  • Need conscious correction
  • Related injuries
  • ITB syndrome in runners
  • Friction massage
  • Strengthen glutes, quads
  • Impingement in overhead
  • Stretch anterior capsule
  • Strengthen trapezius, infraspinatus, teres minor
  • Improve scapular motion

17
Body mechanics
  • Positioning and use of the body during activity
  • Spine straight pelvis in neutral
  • Wiggly spine wont transfer forces
  • Lower center of gravity
  • Back straight when lowering the body
  • Widen base of support
  • Stand in direction of force application
    (front/back)
  • Side-by-side stance for right/left force
  • Abdominal strength necessary to transfer force
    between upper and lower extremities
  • ADLs??
  • Clinicians mechanics??

18
Feldenkrais method
  • Engage whole person to promote self-esteem and
    improve learning
  • Uses developmental movements
  • Begin simple and progress
  • Allow relaxation during changes of position
  • Uses imagery to focus attention
  • Pain avoided

19
Alexander technique
  • Advocated unlearning incorrect habits
  • Uses light touch, verbal cues, and self-awareness
  • Emphasizes thought over action
  • Stress free movement

20
Pilates method
  • Combination of yoga, Zen and ancient conditioning
  • Art of control
  • Integrated body awareness
  • Coordinated movements
  • All motions begin in the core
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