The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political Participation and Representation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political Participation and Representation PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1c6753-YTliM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political Participation and Representation

Description:

How migration and ethnic diversity have influenced/modified conceptions of ... conventional forms of political participation (protest, resistance, boycott, etc) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:81
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 13
Provided by: ULG16
Learn more at: http://emilie.eliamep.gr
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political Participation and Representation


1
The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political
Participation and Representation
  • Hassan BOUSETTA
  • EMILIE Conference
  • Berlin 25 September
  • Migration and Diversity Challenges in Europe
  • Theoretical and Policy Responses

2
The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political
Participation and Representation
  • Research questions?
  • How migration and ethnic diversity have
    influenced/modified conceptions of citizenship
    (rights and duties on the one hand/participatory
    processes on the other hand) in Europe?
  • What kind of multicultural democracy is currently
    being produced through experiences of
    participatory citizenship by migrants and
    minorities?

3
The Ethnic Diversity Challenge in Political
Participation and Representation
  • Preliminary comparative observations on the
    structure of the political challenge debate in
    the 9 EMILIE countries
  • High degree of national variations in both
    empirical contexts and the intellectual framing
    of the debate
  • In old immigration countries of North West Europe
    where large segments of the migrant and minority
    population (MMP) is enfranchised or naturalised
    debates tend focus on the formal process of
    participation and representation
  • In recent immigration countries of Southern,
    Central and Eastern Europe where MMP have had
    proportionately less access to citizenship/nationa
    lity debates are more focused on the conditions
    of access to political rights

4
(No Transcript)
5
The political rights of non-nationals
  • Political rights and naturalisation (liberal or
    restrictive)
  • Harmonisation of the political rights of EU
    foreign residents (Maastricht Treaty) within the
    EU. No similar harmonisation of the political
    rights of TCNs not likely to happen in the
    short run
  • EU citizenship has given more intellectual and
    political legitimacy to the claim for the
    enfranchisement of TCNs on the basis of residence

6
The political rights of non-nationals
  • 4 categories of countries
  • Enfranchisement based on strict interpretation of
    EU citizenship
  • Broad enfranchisement
  • Enfranchisement on the basis of post-imperial
    and/or colonial links
  • Enfranchisement on the basis of bilateral
    reciprocity

7
(No Transcript)
8
Three comparative observations on political
participation
  • For migrant and minorities, political
    participation goes far beyond electoral
    participation. Where large segments of MMC remain
    disenfranchised, significant political
    mobilization occurs through voluntary
    associations and/or unconventional means.
  • Institutional dimensions such as whether voting
    is obligatory or optional impact upon the degree
    and level of participation by MMC. In countries
    where voting requires registration, such as
    Britain, France and Denmark, ethnic minority
    voter registration was generally lower than among
    the native majority. This is also the case in
    countries where voting is compulsory for
    nationals (Belgium and Greece).
  • Voting behaviour data suggests the existence of
    lower levels of electoral participation among MMC
    than among nationals. It also shows that they
    express a strong preference for political parties
    positioned on the left and centre left of the
    political spectrum.
  • In France, 63 associate themselves with the Left
    (37 among native French) and nearly 50 with the
    Socialist Party (33 among native French).
  • An opinon poll in Germany among Turkish citizens
    (both enfranchised and disenfranchised) showed
    that 74 would vote for the Socialist Party SPD
    (36 among natives).
  • A similar trend has been observaed in favour of
    the British Labour Party even if the 2005 General
    election result indicate a decreasing support
    from Muslim minorities.

9
Threee comparative observations on political
representation
  • Qualitative and quantitative data suggest that
    MMP remain politically under-represented (even in
    old immigration countries of north west Europe
    (Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Germany) but
    less so at local level in big cities.
  • E.g. 15 of 643 Members of UK Parliament are of
    ethnic minority background - 3 per cent of 21.498
    local councillors in England and Wales.
  • Institutional factors (i.e nature of the
    electoral system, openness of nationality laws)
    are central for considering variations in the
    degree of MMP political representation
  • Another key factor influencing the degree of
    multicultural political representation lies in
    the selection processes implemented within
    political parties. Political parties open to MMP
    representation are often found to use
    instrumental strategies based on tokenism.

10
Three comparative observations on political
consultation
  • Consultative and advisory institutions at the
    local and sometimes at the national levels with
    the objective to encourage migrants political
    participation and representation.
  • Consultation is seen as theoretically positive
    but inefficient in practice (toothless
    instruments). Tension between the aim to increase
    participation and dialogue and the practical
    limitations associated with consultative bodies
    means that even though they are often assessed in
    rather critical terms, they remain in place in
    several of the countries studied (Spain, Germany,
    France, Denmark).
  • Overall, there is a tendency to consider that
    consultative bodies are not decisive in
    channelling immigrant claims. In some instances,
    they are reported to actually have provoked
    perverse effects.
  • E.g. The Paris Consultative Council for
    Foreigners is considered to have marginalised
    group-based ethnic demands, while in Denmark,
    there is a concern that consultative bodies lack
    of efficiency will in the long run have
    demobilisation and disillusionment effects on the
    migrant population.

11
Back to the initial research questions
  • How migration and ethnic diversity have
    influenced/modified conceptions of citizenship
    (rights and duties on the one hand/participatory
    processes on the other hand) in Europe?
  • What kind of multicultural democracy is currently
    being produced through experiences of
    participation by migrants and minorities?

12
Conclusion
  • On the ground, the citizenship of the EU has been
    the most important trigger for challenging the
    classical notion of national citizenship and
    re-opening the debate on the political rights of
    non-nationals. This involves increased interest
    for considering residence as a complementary way
    for accessing local political rights.
  • The political impact of MMP participation,
    consultation, representation tend to remain poor
    and more strongly influenced by institutional
    variables than by ethno-cultural ones
    nationality laws, citizenship rules, electoral
    systems, voter registration requirements, etc.
  • Progress in terms of the political integration of
    MMP do not allow straightforward or naive
    conclusions about multiculturalism. Current
    debates in countries like Denmark and Belgium
    have been marked by a disillusionment about MMP
    political representation (E.g debate on dual
    loyalties, transnational activism, etc.) as well
    as on cultural integration pre-requirements.
About PowerShow.com