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Biosecurity for Dairy Producers

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Abortions, stillbirths, weak calves, fevere, decrease in performance ... Not within 2 weeks of calving. Separate dry and sick cows. Balanced ration. Bulls. Test bulls ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biosecurity for Dairy Producers


1
Biosecurity for Dairy Producers
  • Angie Dement
  • Extension Associate for Veterinary Medicine
  • Texas AgriLife Extension Service
  • College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical
    Sciences
  • Texas AM System
  • College Station, TX 77843
  • http//aevm.tamu.edu

2
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3
  • What is biosecurity?
  • Best management practices that prevent infectious
    diseases from being introduced into a herd or
    flock.

4
Epidemiology of Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Study of the way disease is distributed in
    populations and factors that influence or
    determine the distribution
  • Exposure
  • Immunity

5
  • Means of Transmission
  • Direct
  • Susceptible animals come into direct or close
    contact with an infected, contagious animal
  • Indirect
  • Animals come into contact with infected or
    contaminated animate vectors, inanimate vehicles
    and environmental fomites

6
  • Routes of Transmission
  • Aerosol inhalation
  • Oral
  • Reproductive
  • Skin contact
  • Blood

7
  • Sources
  • Carrier/Reservoir Animals
  • Aerosol Droplets
  • Nasal Fluid
  • Ocular Fluid
  • Saliva
  • Manure
  • Urine
  • Milk
  • Fetal Fluid
  • In-Utero
  • Genital Fluid
  • Blood
  • Carcass

8
  • Vectors
  • Ticks
  • Flies
  • Mosquitoes
  • Scavengers

9
  • Vehicles
  • Instruments
  • Needle
  • Ear tagger
  • Tattooer
  • Dehorner
  • Nose tong
  • Knife
  • Utensils
  • Bucket
  • Trough

10
  • Environment
  • Soil
  • Water
  • Food

11
  • Exposures
  • Susceptible animals
  • Mouth
  • Nose
  • Eyes
  • Skin
  • Teats
  • Vagina
  • Prepuce
  • Transplacental
  • Venereal
  • Blood

12
Immunity
  • Definition
  • Animals ability to resist a disease
  • Types
  • Natural
  • Active
  • Passive

13
Vaccinations
  • Prevent disease
  • Provide antibodies

14
  • Work with veterinarian
  • Follow label
  • Dosage
  • Storage
  • Needle usage

15
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16
  • FEAD Quick Facts
  • http//aevm.tamu.edu

17
  • Biosecurity Practices for
  • Dairy Producers

18
Disease Risk Assessment
  • Identify diseases and transmission
  • Determine cost benefits

19
General Practices
  • Identify all animals
  • Keep records
  • Provide balanced ration
  • Prevent manure contamination
  • Prevent transmission
  • Bunks
  • Milking
  • Reservoir animals
  • Necropsy dead animals
  • Carcass disposal plans

20
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21
Pre-weaned calves
  • Vaccination programs
  • Dam
  • Calves
  • Clean maternal lot
  • Newborn calves
  • Removal
  • 10 body weight
  • Navel health
  • Separate calves
  • Older animals
  • Surface run-off
  • Milk
  • Colostrum
  • Waste-milk

22
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23
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24
Purchased Animals
  • Quarantine new animals
  • Vaccination program
  • Collect herd history

25
Replacement Heifers
  • Isolate
  • Vaccination program
  • Manure contamination
  • Quarantine returning animals

26
Lactating Cows
  • Equipment
  • Established herd vs quarantined/sick
  • Sick animals
  • Isolate
  • Separate fresh cows

27
Dry Cows
  • Dry cow treatments
  • Teat sealants
  • Vaccinate
  • Not within 2 weeks of calving
  • Separate dry and sick cows
  • Balanced ration

28
Bulls
  • Test bulls
  • Before purchasing
  • Routinely for venereal diseases
  • Vaccination program

29
Semen Importation
  • Purchase from known sources
  • Infectious disease programs
  • Know health history
  • Monitor tanks

30
Product Safety
  • Culture
  • New cows
  • Bulk tanks
  • Limited access to storage facilities
  • Alarm systems
  • Sanitize tank

31
Premise Protection
  • Visitors
  • Designated meeting area
  • Limit number of visitors
  • Disinfect
  • Visitors
  • Trailers
  • Vehicles
  • Tires
  • Disposable clothing and shoes
  • Keep identification
  • No physical contact with animals

32
  • Owners
  • Clothing
  • Disposable shoes
  • Clothes
  • Footbaths
  • Equipment disinfectants
  • Mycotoxin testing
  • Law enforcement

33
  • Security
  • Lock gates
  • Post signs
  • Random security checks
  • Good perimeter fences
  • Secure facilities
  • Clean storage facilities before restocking
  • Reduce wildlife contact
  • Inventory materials
  • Secure water sources
  • Monitoring system
  • Stranger alert

34
  • Transportation
  • Disinfectants
  • 1 part bleach to 1 part water
  • Wash/disinfect
  • Trailers
  • Tires
  • Mats
  • Trucks
  • Cleaning crews
  • Clean everything
  • Remove debris
  • Leave disinfectant for 20-30 minutes
  • Dry completely

35
  • Employees
  • Wash hands
  • Report sick animals
  • Check out keys
  • Safety and security meetings
  • Guidelines for home animals
  • Travel from other countries

36
  • Foreign Travelers
  • 48 hours
  • Disinfect clothing
  • No contact with cattle

37
If disease is suspected
  • Routine observation
  • Early detection
  • Rapid reporting
  • Contact veterinarian
  • Report to TAHC
  • 1-800-550-8242
  • Prompt quarantine
  • Rapid response
  • Quick diagnosis

38
  • Be prepared
  • Emergency contact list
  • Critical premises information
  • Lots
  • Fences
  • Storage facilities
  • Site map

39
Disaster Preparedness
  • Possible natural disasters
  • Disease outbreaks
  • Floods
  • Fires
  • Hurricanes
  • Tornadoes
  • Winter storms
  • Droughts

40
  • Possible Human Caused Disasters
  • Traffic
  • Terrorism Bioterrorism
  • Power outages
  • Explosions
  • Hazardous material spills

41
  • AIC Plan
  • Appendix off of local EM plan
  • Determines what should be done before, during and
    after disaster
  • Works with both livestock and pets/companion
    animals

42
  • List everything that must be done, and every
    person involved.
  • Use the AIC plan only as a guide.
  • Dont leave out details.
  • Hold regular exercises.
  • Communicate.
  • Keep situation reports and activity logs of past
    scenarios.

43
What are Foreign Animal Diseases?
  • Disease that is not currently present in the
    United States
  • Can be zoonotic

44
How can a FAD come into U.S.?
  • Natural
  • Accidental
  • Intentional (bioterrorist act)

45
Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Highly contagious
  • Potential to spread rapidly
  • People not affected
  • Devastating
  • Emotionally
  • Economically
  • Sociologically

46
  • Susceptible domestic and wild cloven-hoofed
    livestock
  • Cattle
  • Sheep
  • Goats
  • Domestic and feral swine
  • Deer
  • Llamas

47
  • Transmission
  • Aerosol
  • wind
  • Mechanical
  • people, vehicles, animals
  • Biological
  • movement of infected animals
  • uncooked or undercooked meat products

48
  • If an outbreak occurs
  • Restrictions
  • Quarantines
  • Eradication
  • Slaughter of animals
  • Proper disposal

49
  • FMD Outbreak in 2001 in Great Britian
  • Delayed response
  • 10,472 farms depopulated
  • 4 million destroyed to stop disease
  • 2.5 million humanely slaughtered
  • Over 13 billion

50
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51
National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic
Disease Defense
  • Extension Train-the-Trainers Curriculum


52
National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic
Disease Defense
Extension Train-the-Trainers Curriculum
Chapter 1.........................................
......................Potential
Occurrences Chapter 2 ............................
................................................Ep
idemiology Chapter 3 ............................
.............................Foreign Animal
Diseases Chapter 4 ...............................
.Emerging and Endemic Animal Diseases Chapter 5
................................Biosecurity Best
Management Practices Chapter 6 ...................
.................State Animal Diseases Response
Plan Chapter 7 ...................................
................................Extension EM
Plan Chapter 8 ...................................
...........................County/Local EM
Plan Chapter 9 ...................................
..Media Relations and Communications Chapter 10
..................................................
........Teaching Effectiveness Chapter 11
..................................................
..........Curriculum Evaluation

53
  • Questions?

54
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