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Fluency. Amy Murdoch, Ph.D. Educational Consultant ... Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. McCardle, P. (2004) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fluency

  • Amy Murdoch, Ph.D.
  • Educational Consultant
  • Southwestern Ohio SERRC
  • June 12, 2007

  • Introductions
  • What is Fluency?
  • Why is it important?
  • How do I teach it across the tiers?
  • How do I assess it?
  • Resources

The Science of Reading
  • Teaching Reading IS Rocket Science (Moats, 1999)
    evidence suggests that if we employ best
    practices, very few children will experience
    reading failure (Moats, 2003)
  • Teaching reading is a job for an expert.
  • The majority of teachers underestimate the depth
    of preparation and practice needed

The Science of Reading
  • Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read Thinking
    and learning about print.
  • McCardle, P. (2004). The voice of evidence in
    reading research. Baltimore, MD Brookes.
  • National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children
    to read An evidence-based assessment of the
    scientific research literature on reading and its
    implications for reading instruction.
    Washington, DC National Institute of Child
    Health and Human Development.
  • National Research Council (1998). Preventing
    reading difficulties in young children,
    (Committee on the Prevention of Reading
    Difficulties in Young Children C.E. Snow, M.S.
    Burns, and P. Griffin, Eds.) Washington, DC
    National Academy Press.
  • Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia A
    new and complete science-based program for
    reading problems at any level. New York, NY
    Alfred A. Knopf.

A Great Place to Start
  • www.nationalreadingpanel.org
  • One of the more recent and most rigorous reviews
    of the research.
  • Reflects 30 years of government funded and
    privately funded research, tens of thousands of
    subjects, and hundreds of scientist of various
    disciplines have worked to produce hundreds of
    well designed studies, the results of which have
    converged on major findings that are well
    accepted by reading scholars (Moats, 2003 p. 110

Beginning Reading Core Components-- 5 Big Ideas
  • 1. Phonemic Awareness The ability to hear and
    manipulate sound in words.
  • 2. The Alphabetic Principle (phonics and
    decoding) The ability to associate sounds with
    letters and use these sounds to read words.
  • 3. Fluency The effortless, automatic ability
    to read words in isolation (orthographic reading)
    and connected text.
  • 4. Vocabulary Development The ability to
    understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words
    to acquire and convey meaning.
  • 5. Reading Comprehension The complex cognitive
    process involving the intentional interaction
    between reader and text to extract meaning.

What Makes a Big Idea a Big Idea?
  • A Big Idea is
  • Predictive of reading acquisition and later
    reading achievement.
  • Something we can do something about, i.e.,
    something we can teach.
  • Something that improves outcomes for children
    if/when we teach it.

Complex Alphabetic Code
Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas
Proficient Reading Depends On
  • Phonological awareness.
  • Using phonics to decode accurately.
  • Recognizing words automatically.
  • Knowing what most words mean.
  • Constructing meaning connecting the text with
    prior knowledge.
  • Monitoring comprehension and repairing
    miscomprehension if necessary.

Slide From Moats, 2003
Skilled Reading
  • . . . skilled readers identify words quickly
    with little help from context. It is readers of
    lower skill who rely on context to support word

Rayner, Foorman, Perfetti, Pesetsky,
Seidenberg, Psychological Science in the Public
Interest, 2001
What is reading fluency?
  • Fluent readers can read text with speed,
    accuracy, and proper expression.
  • -NRP

  • Automaticity The ability to translate
    letters-to-sounds-to-words fluently,
    effortlessly. LaBerge and Samuels (1974)
    described the fluent reader as "one whose
    decoding processes are automatic, requiring no
    conscious attention" (e.g., Juel, 1991). Such
    capacity then enables readers to allocate their
    attention to the comprehension and meaning of the
  • Fluency The combination of accuracy and fluency.
    Fluency in oral reading includes additional
    dimensions involving the "quality" of oral
    reading including intonation and expression.

Taken from the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
website http//reading.uoregon.edu
The Concept of Automaticity
  • Automatica skill performed without conscious
  • Automaticitycapacity for performance without
    conscious attention.

What Fluency with the Code and Connected Text
Looks Like
  • Children who are automatic with the code
  • 1. Identify letter-sound correspondences
    accurately and quickly.
  • 2. Identify familiar spelling patterns to
    increase decoding efficiency.
  • 3. Apply maximum resources to the difficult task
    of blending together isolated phonemes to make
  • 4. Apply knowledge of the alphabetic code to
    identify words in isolation and connected text

Taken from the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
website http//reading.uoregon.edu
Why Should I teach Fluency?
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress
    (NAEP) report on reading ability revealed that
    44 of 4th graders had low fluency.

Some Definitions of Reading Fluency
  • the ability to read connected text rapidly,
    smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with
    little conscious attention to the mechanics of
    reading, such as decoding (Meyer and Felton
    1999, p.284)
  • freedom from word recognition problems that
    might hinder comprehension (Literacy Dictionary,
    Harris Hodges, 1995, p.85)
  • efficient, or automatic, identification of words
    allows the reader to focus more attention on the
    meaning of the passage (Torgesen, 2006)

Fluency is more than speed…
  • Fluent readers make their message understood.
    They read in phrases, respect the intonation
    patterns in syntax, and communicate with the
  • Speed must be adequate (minimal), but processing
    the meaning during reading and phrasing the text
    are more important indicators of fluency.

Slide adapted from LETRS Module 6
The Goal Is Meaning
  • Automaticity is NEVER an end in and of itself!
  • Speed is not the goal pleasurable, engaged
    reading for meaning is the goal.
  • Fluency is ONE prerequisite for comprehension
    language processing, background knowledge,
    strategies are necessary as well.

Slide adapted from LETRS Module 6
Why is Fluency Important?
Fluency is . . .
  • the bridge between word recognition and
  • reading with expression--both a requisite and an
    outcome of comprehension.
  • essential so that the readers attention can be
    focused on constructing meaning and making
    connections among ideas in the text and between
    the text and prior knowledge.
  • Lack of ORF in elementary grades has been linked
    to lack of reading proficiency in adolescence and
    adulthood (Shaywitz Shaywitz, 1996 Torgesen,
    Wagner Rahotte, 1994)

Importance of Fluency
  • Research indicates a strong correlation between
    reading fluency and comprehension. Children who
    are able to read fluently can focus their
    attention on making meaning. (Allington, 1983)
  • Fluency is the gateway to comprehension.
    Because of this it is vital to discover and
    monitor childrens reading fluency in the primary

Why is Reading Fluency a Big Idea?
  • Proven to make a difference in reading
    achievement in experimental, controlled studies
  • Students who receive ORF instruction do better
    than those who dont.
  • Replication of these findings over time, across
    settings, and across students.

How Do I Teach Reading Fluency Across the
Tiers? How Do I assess Reading Fluency Across
the Tiers?
Ohio Integrated Systems Model for Academic and
Behavior Supports
Academic System
Decisions about tiers of support are data-based
Taken from the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
website http//reading.uoregon.edu
Providing Fluency Instruction
  • Guided oral reading in small groups is sufficient
    for typical children
  • Struggling readers need more structured,
    systematic, explicit emphasis on building both
    accuracy and fluency.
  • According to the NRP no research evidence is
    available to confirm that instructional time
    spend on silent, independent reading with minimal
    feedback improves reading fluency and overall
    reading achievement (2001, p.13)

Providing Fluency Instruction
  • Effective fluency building activities include
  • Model reading and rereading
  • Choral reading
  • Paired reading with an adult or student
  • Repeated readings
  • Reading with tape-recorded selections
  • Charting progress

Fluency Practice with Connected Text
  • Fluency develops through a significant amount of
    practice reading aloud.
  • Texts for fluency practice should be at a childs
    instructional or independent level.
  • Texts at a childs frustration level (with less
    than 93 accuracy rate) should not be used for
    fluency practice. Texts at this level promote

What to Look for in Materials to Build Fluency
  • Are passages within the learner's decoding range?
    (95 accuracy or higher)
  • Is there an explicit strategy for teaching
    students to transition from accuracy to fluency?
  • Is there daily opportunity for fluency building?
  • Is there overlap in words (i.e., words show up
    multiple times in different text)?
  • Are target rates identified?

Taken from the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
website http//reading.uoregon.edu
How to Determine Appropriate Level Text
  • Select text that students read with 95 accuracy.
  • Levels of Challenge
  • Independent reading Level 97
  • Instructional Level 94-97
  • Frustration Level 93 or lower
  • For fluency building, materials should be at
    instructional level or above.
  • - Modified from Hasbrouck, 1998

Taken from the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
website http//reading.uoregon.edu
Assessing Reading Fluency Tier 1
  • Assessing your curriculum and instructional
  • Assessing your students.

Tools For Analyzing Tier 1 Supports for Reading
  • Curriculum Maps
  • Consumers Guides for Core and Supplemental
  • PET
  • Your DIBELS Data

Curriculum Maps
  • Phonemic awareness skills can be taught in a
    particular sequence that maximizes student
    understanding and instructional efficiency.
    Phonemic awareness is only taught in kindergarten
    and first grade. By the end of first grade,
    students should have a firm grasp of phonemic
  • Curriculum maps list specific skills that relate
    to each big idea. Each skill can be taught during
    at an optimal time during the school year.

Taken from the Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
website http//reading.uoregon.edu
(No Transcript)
Consumers Guide http//reading.uoregon.edu/append
  • Consumer's Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading
    Program Grades K - 3 A Critical Elements

Examining Program Content
  • The Consumers Guide provides a common metric
    for evaluating
  • Scope of review and prioritization of skills
  • Quality and nature of the delivery of instruction

Examining Scope of Review Prioritization
  • The reading programs scope and sequence should
    provide evidence of breadth and depth of coverage
    on essential skills.
  • High Priority Items in Kindergarten

High Priority Items Grade 1 Phonics Instruction
Planning Evaluation Tool http//reading.uoregon.
  • The Planning and Evaluation Tool (PET) is
    designed to help schools take stock of their
    strengths and areas of improvement in developing
    a schoolwide beginning reading plan.
  • The items and criteria in the PET represent the
    ideal conditions and total to 100 points.
  • Score should reflect how you are currently doing
    as a school in your instructional practices. This
    tool is designed to assist in your planning and

7 Elements of the PET
  • Goals/Objectives/Priorities
  • Assessment
  • Instructional Programs and Materials
  • Instructional Time
  • Differentiated Instruction/Grouping/Scheduling
  • Administration/Organization/Communication
  • Professional Development

PET-R Sample
Example RB Programs for Teaching Fluency
  • Peer Assisted Learning Strategies
  • Read Naturally
  • PART
  • The Six Minute Solution

Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) -
Vanderbilt University
  • First-Grade PALS is implemented 3-4 times a week
    for approximately 35 minutes per session
  • First-grade PALS emphasizes decoding and reading

Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) -
Vanderbilt University
  • Grades 2-6 PALS Reading is implemented 3 times a
    week for 35 minutes per session.
  • In grades 2-6, there are three PALS activities
    that promote reading fluency and reading
  • 1) Partner Reading
  • 2) Paragraph Shrinking
  • 3) Prediction Relay

Read Naturally
  • Leveled stories (from 1.0 to 8.0)
  • 24 stories per level
  • Focuses primarily on building fluency includes
    brief components for vocabulary and comprehension
  • Student directed with minimal teacher involvement

Paraprofessional As Reading Tutor (PART) Sopris
  • Teaches paraprofessionals and parents to become
    powerful reading coaches
  • Targets fluency with some comprehension questions
  • Requires less than 20 minutes per day
  • 1 on 1 tutoring

Finding Research Based Reading Fluency Programs
  • Think about the match with your core, ease of
    implementation, cost, research base, skills
  • Oregon Reading First http//oregonreadingfirst.u
  • Consumer's Guide to Reviewing Core and
    Supplemental Programs
  • Review of many programs
  • Florida Center for Reading Research
  • Reviews a number of programs
  • Look at the research base carefully!

Assessing Your Students
  • Adopting a school-wide assessment system.
  • Using data to guide instructional decision making.

A Schoolwide Assessment System
  • Reliable and valid indicators of skills highly
    associated with early reading success
  • Provide vital signs of growth and development
  • Sensitive to small changes over time
  • Simple, quick, cost effective measures that are
    easily repeatable for continuous progress

  • Research-based (what does this mean?)
  • Efficient
  • Looks at growth across time, lets you know
    quickly if something is or is not working
  • Relates to our standards and high-stakes tests
  • Data-based decision making
  • Powerful

How DIBELS Assesses Reading Fluency
  • Middle of First Grade Through Sixth Grade Use of
    the ORF measure

DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF)
DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF)
  • Big Idea
  • Benchmark Goal
  • Assessment Times
  • - Accuracy and fluency reading connected text
  • - 40 end of First Grade
  • - 90 end of Second Grade
  • - 110 end of Third Grade
  • - 118 end of Fourth Grade
  • - 124 end of Fifth Grade
  • - 125 end of Sixth Grade
  • - First Grade Winter, spring
  • - Second - Sixth Grades Fall, winter, spring

DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF)
  • Examiner shows reading passage to student.
    Student reads the passage.
  • Score Number of words read correctly in 1 minute.

  • Benchmark or progress monitoring booklet
  • Student materials booklet
  • Clipboard
  • Stopwatch
  • Pen or pencil

Benchmark Booklet DORF Scoring Page
What Else Can We Tell From Oral Reading Fluency
  • 1. Is the student highly fluent (both speed and
  • 2. Does the student use effective strategies to
    decode words?
  • Does the student adjust pacing (i.e., slows down
    and speeds up) according to level of text
  • Does the student read with expression and attend
    to punctuation?
  • Does the student possess prediction-orientation,
    I.e., seem to look ahead and read at a
    sentence/paragraph level?
  • Does the student self-correct?
  • Does the student make only meaning preservation
  • Does the student display automaticity on reread

Powerful Predictors
  • General Outcome Measure
  • Prediction of high stakes test
  • Nationally
  • In Ohio

One Districts 3rd Grade OAT and DIBELS Data
Using Data to Guide Instructional Decision Making
  • Making Decisions About
  • Effectiveness of curriculum and instruction
  • Are we getting 80 of our students to benchmarks?
  • DIBELS Summary of Effectiveness Report
  • Creation of small groups
  • Who needs what skills?
  • Movement in the curriculum
  • Curriculum mastery or need for review
  • Need for Tier 2 Supports
  • Who needs additional supports?
  • What type of supports?
  • What skills are needed?

Tier II Targeted Interventions
  • Who receives targeted interventions?
  • Students who are not making sufficient progress
    with core instruction and are at risk for not
    reaching future benchmarks
  • Characteristics of targeted interventions
  • Explicit and systematic instruction in specific
    skill(s) using scientifically-based program
  • Implemented in flexible, homogeneous small groups
  • In addition to core instruction
  • Increased progress monitoring to determine if the
    intervention is effective, needs to be modified,
  • Decision rules regarding when to fad support and
    when to increase support (Tier 3)

Kindergarten Students Initial Sound Fluency
Weekly Progress Monitoring Graph
Tier II Intervention Structures
  • Automatic system set up
  • Additional services should compliment/support
    classroom instructioncoordination of services is
  • Provided in an inclusive manner
  • Training of persons implementing the intervention
    and plan for support
  • Consistent implementation
  • Frequency of implementation
  • Fidelity of implementation
  • Consistent and reliable progress monitoring that
    is graphed with student
  • Communication with family

Defining Intervention
  • Interventions are intended to bring students up
    to level as fast as possible by providing
    thorough coverage of the component(s) of reading
    identified as below level.
  • Interventions should be research-based and
    provide increased opportunities for modeling,
    practice, and feedback.

Tier 2 Interventions for Fluency
  • Might be the only piece that is needed, might be
    one of many pieces that is needed.

Making Sure Tier 2 Supports are Appropriate,
Strong, and Documented
  • Appropriate
  • Tier 1 Supports are in place (Research Based Core
    appropriately Supplemented)
  • Tier 2 Supports are connected to the core,
    addressing this childs skill needs,
    research-based, inclusive, culturally responsive,
    done by trained educators
  • Strong
  • Done Frequently (Planned and Implemented)
  • Plans
  • Attendance of Child and Instructor
  • Done with Integrity
  • Includes Progress Monitoring
  • Frequency of data collection
  • Correct datainstructional level
  • Documentation
  • How do you know intervention was done?
  • How do you know what progress the child made?
  • See Examples of Paperwork

Case 1 Suzy Reading Graph
Tier 2 Decision Rules
  • When children met their goals across 2
    consecutive assessment sessions, a team (teacher,
    parent, possibly others involved) met to decide
    if the child would move out of Tier 2 or if
    continued support was needed.
  • If childs data was consistently below aim line
    (3 point rule used) child may move to Tier 3.

Tier III Individualized, Intensive Intervention
  • Who receives intensive interventions?
  • Students who do not make adequate progress with
    targeted supports
  • Characteristics of intensive interventions
  • Instruction includes systematic, explicit
    instruction using scientifically-based programs
    and strategies
  • Increased opportunities to practice through
    increased time and/or decreased group size
  • More frequent progress monitoring
  • Highly skilled interventionists

Tier 3 Individual Collaborative Problem Solving
  • Use of the Collaborative Problem Solving
    Research Based 5 step process (written down) for
    individual child.
  • The Team is created around the child based on who
    is involved and the concerns that are seen.
    Parent and Childs teacher are always on the
  • PA may be the only concern, or one of many.

Case 1 Suzys ORF Reading Graph
Where Do Children with Special Needs Fit In?
  • Everywhere!
  • Involved in all Tiers
  • Inclusion is part of the model
  • Prevents unnecessary special education placement,
    uses intervention data to guide decision-making
    (before and during special education placement)
  • Gives teachers the tools to make it work

Web Resources
  • www.reading.uoregon.edu The BIG Ideas in
    Beginning Reading
  • www.interventioncentral.org Intervention Central
  • http//oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu Oregon
    Reading First
  • www.fcrr.org Florida Center for Reading Research
  • www.swoserrc.org Southwest Ohio Special Education
    Regional Resource Center
  • www.texasreading.org Texas Center for Reading
    and Language Arts

Additional Key References
  • Armbruster, B.B., Lehr,F, Osborn, J. (2001)
    Putting Reading First The Research Building
    Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Jessup, MD
    National Institute for Literacy.
  • Hasbrouck (1998). Reading fluency Principles
    for instruction and progress monitoring.
    Professional Development Guide. Austin, TX Texas
    Center for Reading and Language Arts, University
    of Texas at Austin.
  • Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write A
    longitudinal study of 54 children from first
    through fourth grades. Journal of Educational
    Psychology, 80, 437-447.
  • Kaminski, R. A., Good, R. H., III (1998).
    Assessing early literacy skills in a
    problem-solving model Dynamic indicators of
    basic early literacy skills. In M. R. Shinn
    (Eds.), Advanced applications of curriculum-based
    measurement. New York Guildford.
  • Moats, L. (2003) LETERS Language Essentials
    for Teachers of Reading and Spelling Longmont,
    CO Sopris West.
  • National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching
    Children to Read An Evidence-Based Assessment of
    the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and
    Its Implications for Reading Instruction. Reports
    of the subgroup. Bethesda, MD National Institute
    of Child Health and Human Development, National
    Institutes of Health.
  • Vaughn, S. Linan-Thompson, S. (2004)
    Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction
    Grades K-3. Alexandria, VA Association for
    Supervision and Curriculum Development.

How to Contact Me
  • Amy Murdoch murdoch_a_at_swoserrc.org

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