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The French and Indian War

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The French and. Indian War. 1756 to 1763. Beginning of the French & Indian War. Objectives. How did the War Start. What ... Only land is on the Eastern Seaboard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The French and Indian War


1
The French and Indian War
  • 1756 to 1763

2
Beginning of the French Indian War
  • Objectives
  • How did the War Start
  • What were the causes? Local or Foreign problems?
  • What affect did this conflict have on GW?

3
3 Background Causes
  • Previous Conflicts between France and Britain
  • Colonies desire to Expand Westward
  • Natives desire to pit France against Britain, in
    hope they destroy each other and leave the
    frontier.

4
1. Previous Conflicts
  • Britain and France had already had 3 indecisive
    wars in the previous ½ century.
  • King Williams War
  • Queen Annes War
  • King Georges War
  • Conflicts in Europe that affected New World.

5
2. Desire to Expand - New France
  • France claimed land
  • St. Lawrence River
  • Mississippi River Valley, named Louisiana
  • New France population only grew to 80,000.
  • No desire to build towns or raise families, there
    for the Fur Trade
  • Befriended Natives for Trading Partners

6
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7
2. Desire to Expand British Colonies
  • Only land is on the Eastern Seaboard
  • British population had grown to over a million in
    the colonies ? wanted to expand westward.

8
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9
Start of the Conflict 1754Fighting Over the
Same Land
  • French built Fort Duquesne at start of the Ohio
    (now Pittsburgh)
  • Virginia had given same land to a group of
    wealthy planters Ohio Valley Company

10
First Conflict
  • Virginia militia was sent to order French to
    leave
  • Led by George Washington (22), established Fort
    Necessity
  • GW and men attacked small group of French
    soldiers, Natives with GW killed a French officer
  • French countered attacking Fort Necessity
  • British outnumbered, high losses, they were
    forced to surrender

11
Second Conflict for Ohio Valley Region
  • July 1755 - General Braddock, sent to recapture
    Fort Duquesne, with Washington as a volunteer
    assistant to the General
  • "The Indians may be formidable to your raw
    American militia upon the king's regulars and
    disciplined troops, it is impossible they should
    make any impression." Braddock
  • Washington warned that they may need to fight
    like the Indians, Braddock responded - "What! a
    provincial colonel teach a British general how to
    fight!"
  • British were surrounded in the woods, exactly
    what Washington had warned.
  • British outnumbered by French and Natives Huge
    casualties
  • Braddock was killed, only 30 Virginians survived,
    British regulars fled.
  • Washington was lucky! "I luckily escaped without
    a wound, though I had four bullets through my
    coat, and two horses shot under me."

12
British Lose to French and Indians During March
to Duquesne
13
Read the Article on GW
14
Declaration of War
  • Undeclared war continued for 1 and ½ years
  • Finally declared war in May 1756.
  • For the 1st 3 years of the war, French dominated
    the battlefield
  • Fort Ticonderoga
  • Fort Oswego
  • Fort William Henry
  • British not used to the more guerilla warfare
    style.

15
The Turning of the Tide
  • King George II selected new leader to run
    government in 1757
  • Lord William Pitt borrowed , Spend Now, Pay
    later
  • Assembled largest, best-equipped army ever seen
    in N.A. with 50,000 men.
  • Adapted war strategies to fit the territory and
    landscape of the American frontier.
  • Became allies with important Natives, ie. Iroquis

16
Ben Franklin
  • Franklin saw the dangers on the American frontier
    after Braddock's 1755 defeat
  • Got PA legislature funds to support the arming of
    a line of frontier forts to defend PA against the
    French/Indians, despite much legislative
    resistance

17
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18
Join or Die
  • Colonists were divided on whether to fight the
    French
  • Cartoon became a symbol for the need of organized
    action against an outside threat
  • Franklin had proposed the Albany Plan in 1954
  • A plan to place the colonies under a more
    centralized gov.
  • His cartoon suggested that such a union was
    necessary to avoid destruction
  • Although never carried out, it was the first
    important plan to conceive of the colonies as a
    collective whole united under one government.

19
End of the War
  • French were abandoned by many Indian allies.
  • Exhausted,outnumbered and outgunned by the
    British
  • French collapsed during the years 1758-59
  • British surprised and had a massive defeat of
    French at Quebec in September 1759.

20
Treaty of Paris
  • September 1760, the British controlled all of the
    North American frontier
  • The war was effectively over.
  • 1763 Treaty of Paris, which also ended the
    European Seven Years War, set the terms for
    France to abide by.
  • British gains Canada, east of Mississippi
  • Spanish given some land west of Mississippi
  • Natives given nothing

21
  • North America 1763

22
Pontiacs War
  • Natives angered by
  • trade relations with British
  • increase settlers past the Appalachian Mountains
  • British continued to fight with the Indians over
    the issue of land claims.
  • Captured English forts in Ohio Valley
  • In return, British officers gave small pox
    infected blankets to natives, disease spread to
    others
  • Natives weakened by disease and fighting, agreed
    to negotiate treaties by end of 1765.

Chief Pontiac, led raids of British settlements
23
The Proclamation of 1763
  • To prevent more fighting King George halted
    settlers westward expansion
  • Set Appalachian Mountains as the temporary
    boundary for the colonies
  • Angered colonists who were
  • already living in the area
  • recently purchased land there b/c claims now not
    recognized
  • Created friction between the colonies and Great
    Britain

24
Interesting Fact
  • The French and Indian War was the Bloodiest
    American war in the 1700s.
  • More lives lost than the American Revolution
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