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The French and Indian War


The French and. Indian War. 1756 to 1763. Beginning of the French & Indian War. Objectives. How did the War Start. What ... Only land is on the Eastern Seaboard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The French and Indian War

The French and Indian War
  • 1756 to 1763

Beginning of the French Indian War
  • Objectives
  • How did the War Start
  • What were the causes? Local or Foreign problems?
  • What affect did this conflict have on GW?

3 Background Causes
  • Previous Conflicts between France and Britain
  • Colonies desire to Expand Westward
  • Natives desire to pit France against Britain, in
    hope they destroy each other and leave the

1. Previous Conflicts
  • Britain and France had already had 3 indecisive
    wars in the previous ½ century.
  • King Williams War
  • Queen Annes War
  • King Georges War
  • Conflicts in Europe that affected New World.

2. Desire to Expand - New France
  • France claimed land
  • St. Lawrence River
  • Mississippi River Valley, named Louisiana
  • New France population only grew to 80,000.
  • No desire to build towns or raise families, there
    for the Fur Trade
  • Befriended Natives for Trading Partners

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2. Desire to Expand British Colonies
  • Only land is on the Eastern Seaboard
  • British population had grown to over a million in
    the colonies ? wanted to expand westward.

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Start of the Conflict 1754Fighting Over the
Same Land
  • French built Fort Duquesne at start of the Ohio
    (now Pittsburgh)
  • Virginia had given same land to a group of
    wealthy planters Ohio Valley Company

First Conflict
  • Virginia militia was sent to order French to
  • Led by George Washington (22), established Fort
  • GW and men attacked small group of French
    soldiers, Natives with GW killed a French officer
  • French countered attacking Fort Necessity
  • British outnumbered, high losses, they were
    forced to surrender

Second Conflict for Ohio Valley Region
  • July 1755 - General Braddock, sent to recapture
    Fort Duquesne, with Washington as a volunteer
    assistant to the General
  • "The Indians may be formidable to your raw
    American militia upon the king's regulars and
    disciplined troops, it is impossible they should
    make any impression." Braddock
  • Washington warned that they may need to fight
    like the Indians, Braddock responded - "What! a
    provincial colonel teach a British general how to
  • British were surrounded in the woods, exactly
    what Washington had warned.
  • British outnumbered by French and Natives Huge
  • Braddock was killed, only 30 Virginians survived,
    British regulars fled.
  • Washington was lucky! "I luckily escaped without
    a wound, though I had four bullets through my
    coat, and two horses shot under me."

British Lose to French and Indians During March
to Duquesne
Read the Article on GW
Declaration of War
  • Undeclared war continued for 1 and ½ years
  • Finally declared war in May 1756.
  • For the 1st 3 years of the war, French dominated
    the battlefield
  • Fort Ticonderoga
  • Fort Oswego
  • Fort William Henry
  • British not used to the more guerilla warfare

The Turning of the Tide
  • King George II selected new leader to run
    government in 1757
  • Lord William Pitt borrowed , Spend Now, Pay
  • Assembled largest, best-equipped army ever seen
    in N.A. with 50,000 men.
  • Adapted war strategies to fit the territory and
    landscape of the American frontier.
  • Became allies with important Natives, ie. Iroquis

Ben Franklin
  • Franklin saw the dangers on the American frontier
    after Braddock's 1755 defeat
  • Got PA legislature funds to support the arming of
    a line of frontier forts to defend PA against the
    French/Indians, despite much legislative

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Join or Die
  • Colonists were divided on whether to fight the
  • Cartoon became a symbol for the need of organized
    action against an outside threat
  • Franklin had proposed the Albany Plan in 1954
  • A plan to place the colonies under a more
    centralized gov.
  • His cartoon suggested that such a union was
    necessary to avoid destruction
  • Although never carried out, it was the first
    important plan to conceive of the colonies as a
    collective whole united under one government.

End of the War
  • French were abandoned by many Indian allies.
  • Exhausted,outnumbered and outgunned by the
  • French collapsed during the years 1758-59
  • British surprised and had a massive defeat of
    French at Quebec in September 1759.

Treaty of Paris
  • September 1760, the British controlled all of the
    North American frontier
  • The war was effectively over.
  • 1763 Treaty of Paris, which also ended the
    European Seven Years War, set the terms for
    France to abide by.
  • British gains Canada, east of Mississippi
  • Spanish given some land west of Mississippi
  • Natives given nothing

  • North America 1763

Pontiacs War
  • Natives angered by
  • trade relations with British
  • increase settlers past the Appalachian Mountains
  • British continued to fight with the Indians over
    the issue of land claims.
  • Captured English forts in Ohio Valley
  • In return, British officers gave small pox
    infected blankets to natives, disease spread to
  • Natives weakened by disease and fighting, agreed
    to negotiate treaties by end of 1765.

Chief Pontiac, led raids of British settlements
The Proclamation of 1763
  • To prevent more fighting King George halted
    settlers westward expansion
  • Set Appalachian Mountains as the temporary
    boundary for the colonies
  • Angered colonists who were
  • already living in the area
  • recently purchased land there b/c claims now not
  • Created friction between the colonies and Great

Interesting Fact
  • The French and Indian War was the Bloodiest
    American war in the 1700s.
  • More lives lost than the American Revolution