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Human Biochemistry B'59

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Needed to produce enzymes or other substances needed for health. Macronutrients ... Vitamin A, Iodine, iron, niacin, thiamin, vit. C, D, selenium, protein ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Biochemistry B'59


1
Human Biochemistry B.5-9
2
nutrients
  • Food required in the diet
  • Recommended daily intake
  • Micro less than 0.005 of body mass mg or µg per
    day
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Needed to produce enzymes or other substances
    needed for health

3
Macronutrients
  • For energy and structure
  • Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
  • Na,Mg,K,Ca,P,S and Cl

4
  • Dietary minerals
  • Major mineralsin bone Calcium, phosphate,
    magnesium
  • Major mineralsin electrolytes Sodium, potassium,
    chloride
  • Minor mineralsin metalloproteins Iron, copper,
    manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium,
    chromium, fluoride, zinc
  • Trace minerals Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin

5
  • Electrolyte results
  • Test Patient's Results Ref. RangeUnits
  • BMP
  • Na L124 136-145mEq/L
  • K H5.8 3.5-5.1mEq/L
  • CO2 25 23-29mEq/L
  • Cl 101 98-107mEq/L
  • Glucose H107 74-100mg/dL
  • Ca 10.1 8.6-10.2mg/dL
  • BUN 17 8-23mg/dL
  • Creatinine0.9 0.8-1.3mg/dL
  • Key LAbnormal Low, HAbnormal High, WNLWithin
    Normal Limits, critical value

6
Vitamins
  • Needed but not synthesized in the body
  • Water or fat soluble
  • Water -filtered out by kidneys and excreted
  • Fat -absorbed and stored in fat tissues
  • Look at table 21 of the IB data booklet

7
  • ADEK fat
  • all others water

8
  • Look at data booklet
  • Vitamin A (retinol)structure
  • Fat
  • Important for vision at low light intensity

9
  • Look at vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Water
  • Cofactor in enzyme reactions
  • Tissue regeneration after injury

10
  • D (calciferol)
  • Fat
  • Similar in structure to cholesterol
  • Uptake of Ca2 by cells
  • Healthy bones and teeth
  • Get by sunlight or put in milk

11
Deficiency diseases
  • Pick one for a report (in pairs)
  • Vitamin A, Iodine, iron, niacin, thiamin, vit. C,
    D, selenium, protein
  • Describe disease, pictures?, reasons, solutions

12
General summary of nutrient problems
  • What is the problem in the USA?
  • Worldwide causes and solutions
  • do questions 9 and 10

13
B.6 Hormones
  • Communication systems
  • Nervous electrochemical quick
  • Endocrine chemical messengers slower
  • Different types of molecules
  • Produced in glands (no ducts)
  • Receptors are target cells

14
Hormones
15
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16
  • Another report
  • ADH, thyroxine, aldosterone, adrenaline, insulin,
    estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
  • Gland, type of molecule, target cells, functions

17
  • Look at your data booklet on hormones
  • Compare cholesterol, estradiol(estrogen),
    progesterone, testosterone
  • Alike and differences

18
Oral contraceptives
  • Prevents ovulation
  • Mixture of progesterone and estrogen
  • Prevent release of follicle stimulating and
    luteinizing hormones
  • No ovulation, simulates pregnancy

19
Use and abuse of steroids
  • Hormone replacement therapy at menopause
  • Male steroids (anabolic) androgens like
    testosterone
  • Enhance male characteristics
  • Overuse aggressive, liver cancer

20
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21
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22
  • Do questions 11 and 12

23
B.7 Enzymes
  • Control system of the body
  • Biological catalysts

24
structure
  • Globular proteins-several hundred amino acids
  • Tertiary and quaternary structures important
  • Co-factors binding non-protein molecules
  • Organic called coenzymes inorganic metal ions
  • Examples vitamins

25
Catalytic action
  • Define enzyme
  • Reactant is a substrate
  • Enzyme substrate complex
  • Active site on the enzyme is a pocket or groove
    on the surface
  • Enzyme is larger than substrate

26
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27
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28
  • Animation
  • Another animation

29
saturation

  • 3 things this tells us

30
  • Low conc. Rate relates to substate
  • As conc. Increases enzyme gets tied up
  • High conc. Rate constant

31
Michaelis-Menten Equation
  • Vmax turnover number
  • molecules/second

32
Michaelis constant Km
  • ½ Vmax
  • Specific pH and temp.
  • Units of concentration
  • Low Km quick reaction constant rate

33
Enzyme activity
  • Temperature
  • Increase rate as temp goes up
  • At a point the protein denatures

34
  • Human optimum tends to be 37 oC
  • Denaturation usually is irreversible
  • Lowering temperature only causes deactivation
  • High fevers can be fatal

35
pH
  • Changes affect the equilibrium positions
  • If it affects the R groups in amino acids it will
    alter the attractive ability thus influences the
    shape
  • Each enzyme has an optimal pH
  • Extremes cause denaturation

36
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37
Heavy metal ions
  • Lead, copper, mercury and silver
  • Poisonous
  • React with SH groups on cysteine to make S-metal
  • Changes shape

38
Chemical inhibitors
  • Competitively at the active site
  • Non-competitively at another area

39
Competitive inhibitors
40
  • Takes a higher substrate concentration to reach
    Vmax

41
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42
  • Chymotrpsin is an enzyme which hydrolyzes
    peptides at the carbonyl side of tyr or phe or
    trp (i.e. those that have an aromatic side chain.
    In the graphic on the left, the substrate and the
    irreversible inhibitor are shown in the active
    site pocket. In the case of the inhibitor the
    reaction starts in the same way as with the
    substrate, but the end result is that the
    inhibitor is covalently bonded to the
    histidine-57 in the active site and is not
    reversible

43
  • Changes shape of enzyme
  • Increasing concentration doesnt help
  • Poisons DDT, cyanide and antibiotics
  • Means of controlling metabolic activity in
    healthy cells
  • Thermostat and heater

44
Enzymes vs. catalysts
  • Enzymes are
  • Specific
  • Reaction saturation
  • Speed up 1000 to 1000000 times
  • Can be inhibited
  • Very sensitive to environmental changes

45
B.8 Nucleic adids
  • DNA and RNA
  • Information storage of genetics in the nucleus
  • How did it begin?

46
  • DNA must be stable
  • Contain a code
  • Be able to replicate

47
Nucleic acid structure
  • Polymers of nucleotides
  • Three components
  • 1. pentose sugar
  • ribose

48
  • Deoxyribose C2 lacks an OH

49
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50
2. Phosphate group
  • PO43

51
3. Nitrogenous base
  • Purine adenine (A) quanine (G)
  • Larger 2 fused rings
  • Or pyrimidines smaller one ring

52
DNA bases
53
RNA
  • Uracil replaces thymine one less CH3

54
  • Joined together by condensation reactions
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