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Periodic Trends

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Periodic Trends. Atomic Size Trends. often determined by one half the distance ... these additional levels shield the electrons(-) in outer levels from the protons' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Periodic Trends


1
Periodic Trends
2
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Atomic Size Trends
  • often determined by one half the distance between
    the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when
    joined

Atomic radius (r)
4
  • often measured in picometers (10-12 m)
  • in general, atomic size
  • increases from top to bottom within a group
  • the atom has more levels
  • these additional levels shield the electrons(-)
    in outer levels from the protons() attractive
    force
  • decreases from left to right across a period
  • more positive charged protons pulls electrons in
    closer

see Figure 6.14 in text
5
Atomic radii flash animation
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Ionization Energy (IE) Trends
  • the energy required to remove an electron
  • energy to remove the first electron is called the
    first ionization energy
  • energy to remove the second.
  • energy to remove the third.

8
  • in general, ionization energy
  • decreases from top to bottom within a group
  • as the atoms size increases (more levels and
    therefore shielding effect), it is harder for the
    nucleus to hang on to the electrons
  • increases from left to right across a period
  • more positively charged protons holds the
    electrons tighter
  • but no new levels to shield electrons

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Electronegativity Trends
  • ability of an element to attract more electrons
  • based on a scale from 0.7 (Cesium) to 4.0
    (Fluorine)
  • in general
  • decrease from top to bottom with a group
  • the electrons are further away from the nucleus
    and better shielded from the nuclear charge and
    thus not as attracted to the nucleus
  • increase from left to right across a period
  • as protons increases, so will the attraction
    that the atom has for electrons in its outermost
    energy level

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Practice Problems
  • Organize the following elements in decreasing
    atomic size
  • FrNaRbKHCsLi
  • FrCsRbKNaLiH
  • Organize the following elements based on
    increasing first ionization energy
  • LiOFNeNCBeB
  • LiBeBCNOFNe
  • Organize the following elements according to
    decreasing electronegativity
  • KBrZnScKrCaAsSe
  • BrSeAsZnScCaKKr
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