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Beyond Consciousness to Cosmos: Beyond Relativity and Quantum Theory to Cosmic Theory


Albert Einstein, The Meaning of ... Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 1954, p. 363. Light ... Albert Einstein, Ether and the Theory of Relativity, 1920 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Beyond Consciousness to Cosmos: Beyond Relativity and Quantum Theory to Cosmic Theory

Beyond Consciousness to Cosmos Beyond Relativity
and Quantum Theory to Cosmic Theory
  • Why We Have No Physical Cosmology, and How to
    Start Creating One
  • Henry Lindner

  • Discuss the origins and nature of Relativity and
    Quantum Mechanics
  • Show that Relativity is inadequate ideology
  • Introduce Natural Philosophy as the disciplined
    use of full our cognitive abilities
  • Introduce a physical theory of space and motion
    to replace Relativity
  • Demonstrate how this theory can explain
    astronomical anomalies

KuhnIdeas Rule!
  • Scientists are trained to work within a
    philosophical program
  • They have neither the mental tools nor the
    motivation to change the program
  • Normal science goes on until paradoxes
    accumulate to an embarrassing degree
  • An innovator from outside the system imposes a
    new program
  • The cycle repeats

Crisis in Theoretical Physics
  • Observer-based lawsanthropocentric
  • Subjectivisticlimited to describing what the
    observer experiences and measures.
  • No hypothesesno physical causality
  • ParadoxesContradictions
  • Ad hoc fixes abound
  • Mathematics accurate but overcomplicated
  • Relativity and QM are incompatible

Current Perspective
Hubble Deep FieldGalaxies!
Milky Way Galaxy
500 yrs ago Earth-observer perspective!
The Math Worked!
Ptolemaic Cosmology
  • Observer-basedobserver at the center and not
    movingjust as his senses and instruments
  • Laws just described the observers
    measurementsin his frame
  • No physical hypothesesanti-physical!
  • Mathematics accurate but over complicated
  • Stood in the way of the advancement of knowledge

Copernican Revolution
  • Shifted the frame from the observers
    consciousness to the Cosmos
  • In retrospect, we can see that no progress in
    Cosmology or physics was possible in the
    Ptolemaic observer-based scheme
  • Opponents argued No evidence of Earths motion,
    mathematics not as accurate, no explanation of
    cause of such motion

Relativitys Cosmology
  • Observer-basedall physical motion related to and
    equally well described in any observers frame.
  • Light travels at c relative to the human observer
    not relative to matter.
  • No physical hypotheses
  • Creates paradoxes
  • Stands in the way of progress

Anti-Copernican Relativity
  • Einstein sought laws of nature valid for any
    CSincluding the rotating Earth observers CS
  • Claimed that Relativity would render the
    historic struggle between the views of Ptolemy
    and Copernicus quite meaningless since Either
    CS could be used with equal justification.
  • Einstein and Infeld, The Evolution of Physics,
    1938 p. 224.

We need a Second Copernican Revolution
  • Again remove the observer from the center of
  • Relate motion and laws of physics to the matter
    and space of the Cosmosnot to any arbitrary CS
  • A physical theory of space, matter and motion
  • Why are we in this mess?

Natural Philosophy vs. Christianity
  • Aristotle revered by Church until works of
    natural philosophy translated
  • Conflict between Aristotelian natural philosophy
    and Christian doctrine? Condemnation 1277 of
    ideas of Aristotle, Averröes, and St. Thomas
  • Church God can move the Cosmos and leave a
    void, The world is not eternal, etc.
  • William of Ockhameliminated all hypothetical
    entities and causes except God
  • Descartes and LockeJudeo-Christian dualism

Roots of Relativity
  • DualismSpirit and Matter
  • Copernicus and Newton offered material
    explanations of phenomena.
  • Threats to traditional religious belief
  • Philosophical explanations reduced role of God in
  • Bishop Berkeley attacked Newtons Mechanics as
    atheistic materialism.

Berkeleys Subjective Idealism
  • Since we know only our own conscious experiences
    and have no direct knowledge of any material
    Cosmos, we must not assume that it exists.
    Berkeley, Principles of Human Knowledge (1710)
    body, para. 18.
  • Reality is a virtual reality simulation fed to
    our spirits from Gods Spirit.
  • The laws of optics are some of the rules that
    govern the Matrix.

Father of Relativity
  • We must treat motion not as absolute, Cosmic, or
    real but as merely relative to ourselves and to
    any other objects in our sensoria, and treat time
    as the mere succession of events in our
  • Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) para.
    112., para. 98.

Humes Non-Religious Skepticism
  • Denied that we could know any Cosmic causes,
    saying that our belief that an effect will follow
    from a cause is merely a custom we have
    acquired through repetitive experience. He
    denied that we could ever know the cause of such
    a custom as gravity.
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748)

MachEinsteins Mentor
  • Admitted the influence of Berkeley and Hume
  • The world consists only of our sensations
  • Ernst Mach, Analysis of Sensations p. 12.
  • Mach refused to believe in atoms (circa 1900)
    because they were not evident to our senses.
  • Believed that Newtons theory of absolute space
    and motion was devoid of content, since we have
    knowledge only of relative spaces and motions.
    He called those who shared his view
  • Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics pp. 283,

Einsteins Subjectivism
  • Admitted Read Berkeley, infl. by Hume, Mach
  • The only justification for our concepts and
    system of concepts is that they serve to
    represent the complex of experiences beyond this
    they have no legitimacy.
  • Albert Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity,1922,
    p. 2.
  • Thereal external world is the sum total of all
    experienced events about which subjects agree.
  • Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 1954, p.

  • Relative to what does light move at velocity c?
  • People in any state of motion
  • Stars and Planets
  • Botheven same light, same time

Cosmic Reality vs. Observer Relativity
? Centauri B
8.6 years
Light c
4.3 years
  • What causes the emission or absorption of a
    subatomic particle by an atom or nucleus?
  • People observing it
  • Unknown Physical Factors

Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum mechanics, however, regards the
    interactions of object and observer as the
    ultimate reality. It uses the language of
    physical relations and processes rather than that
    of physical qualities and properties. It rejects
    as meaningless and useless the notion that behind
    the universe of our perception there lies a
    hidden objective world ruled by causality
    instead, it confines itself to the description of
    the relations among perceptions.
  • Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnik, Quantum
    Physics (John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 1974)
    p. 88.

Special Relativity
  • Restricted Principle of Relativity All laws of
    nature are the same in every uniformly moving
    coordinate system (CS). (including that of every
    human observer)
  • Invariant c The velocity of light, c, is a law
    of physics for every CS.
  • Lorentz transformations relate measurements made
    in co-moving frames

No mention of the Cosmos, matter, or causes?
Motion is Only Relative?
  • There is no such thing as an independently
    existing trajectory, but only a trajectory
    relative to a particular body of reference.
  • Relativity, The Special and General Theory p.
  • Relativity means that all motion and laws of
    motion are merely relative to any chosen observer
    or CS, not uniquely related to the matter and
    space of this Cosmos!

Space and Time
  • To keep c constant for the observer, space and
    time are made variableas per the Lorentz
    transformations between frames.
  • ? v 1-v2/c2
  • Einstein claimed he had thus rendered the ether
  • He had merely changed the program From
    describing the Cosmos to describing our conscious

General Relativity
  • General Principle of Relativity All CSs
    (observers) are equivalent for the formulation of
    the laws of nature whatever may be their state of
  • Einstein tried to relativize gravity and
    accelerationdescribe them as nothing but types
    of transformations between co-moving frames!

No mention of the Cosmos or of physical causes!
Space-Time Matrix
  • Attempted to produce a single set of laws of
    nature valid for any observer in any state of
    motionincluding accelerated!
  • This didnt work
  • Minkowski helped Einstein produce a second
    version the space-time matrix
  • The Cosmos represented, reconstructed, as a set
    of space-time measurements made by

  • Is not an objectivistic model of the physical
  • It is a mathematical representation of the
    observers experiences and measurements.
  • It is subjectivistic in that it assumes that
    light travels at c relative to every observer
  • Its physical reality is a set of observed
    events and the space-time intervals that
    observers measure between these events.

The Space-time Interval
  • Simply adds a timelike imaginary 4th axis to
    Descartes 3 spatial axes
  • c2dt2 the square of the distance light travels
    at c in the observers time
  • It is composed of the one thing that observers
    agree upon when c is absolute for eachthe
    intervals that they measure between observed

Einstein on the Interval
  • The chronotropic interval has no physical
    meaning or significance.
  • quoted by T. Levi-Civita, Nuovo Cimento, 13, 45

Space-Time Misunderstood
  • The space-time curvature around the Earth acts
    on fast or slow balls in exactly the same way. It
    tells these balls how to move.

No. Space-time is the observers 4-dimensional
description of the motion of objects in a
gravitational field. Space-time does not cause
Berkeley Triumphant
  • Relativity, in original or space-time form,
    fulfills Berkeleys program for a physics that
    merely described the rules that control our
    sensations and measurements.
  • Physics reduced to observer-based measurement
  • Physical theory abandoned
  • Natural philosophy suppressed

Relativity and QM
  • Science should just describe what the observer
    experiences and measuresthe contents of his
  • Science should not attempt to relate motion to
    the matter and space of the Cosmos
  • Science should not seek the underlying causes of
    quantum events.

The Confusion
  • Physicists believe they can use the concepts in
    these models in a common sense way to describe
    and understand the nature of Cosmic reality and
    causes of Cosmic phenomena!
  • These models were not designed for that purpose!

The Crux Void vs. Ether
  • If the subjectivistic, observer-created reality
    is true, then there must be no evidence that
    there is any observer-independent space or
  • Space itself must have no physical qualities and
    must cause nothing.
  • But applied physics always requires
    observer-independent spatial frame-ether!
  • How does Relativity cover it up!

No Ether?
  • Space has no physical qualitiesit is a void.
    But in a void there could be
  • No resistance to acceleration
  • No unique light velocity indep. of source
  • No limiting velocity for matter
  • No redshift of moving atomic spectra
  • No resolution of the twin/clock paradoxneed
    third frame to break the symmetry
  • No physical cause of gravity, inertia,
    clock-slowing with velocity, or of anything!

Unless all these things happen by MAGIC!
Ether Physics vs. Relativity
8.6 years
? Centauri B
Light c
4.3 years
Whats the relative velocity of the spaceship and
the light in this Cosmos? What light velocity
does the spaceship measure?
Lorentz before Einstein
  • Lorentz Ether Theory Relative velocity is 1.5c,
    however due to slowing of the ships clocks and
    shortening of its length caused by its velocity
    in Cosmic electromagnetic space, the ships crew
    will measure lights velocity as c.
  • Einstein Relativity Relative velocity is c
    because velocity c for light is a law of physics
    valid for all observers or frames.

Relativity vs. Causality
  • Einsteins Special Relativity (SR) retained
    Lorentzs clock-slowing and length contraction
    effects, but dropped the Cosmic context and the
  • Lorentzs Theory works.
  • Does Relativity work?

Twin Symmetry
Paradoxes arise because Relativity claims that
all motion is merely relative to any arbitrary
frame of reference.
Any two frames in relative motion have identical
trajectories in each others CSsin Relativity
each twin can consider himself stationary and the
other moving! A third frame is required to break
the symmetry! (clue The Cosmos, ether, inertial
space, etc.)
Twin Paradox
In Reality, it is always the twin who moves
relative to the nearby celestial bodies (Cosmic
distribution of matter) that is the younger
one! Motion is NOT merely relativeit is Cosmic!
Global Positioning System Paradox
  • If all motion is merely relative motion, why does
    the GPS system relate light velocity and
    clock-slowing ONLY to the non-rotating Earth
  • Relativists claim Its just simpler!
  • Maybe simpler implies cause!
  • Remember Copernicus?

Aberration Paradoxes
  • If aberration were caused by relative motion
    only, then why dont the stars in a binary system
    shift in their apparent positions in accordance
    with their varying velocities relative to the
  • Starks experiment the direction of light
    arriving from stationary and high-velocity moving
    atoms at the same location is identical.
  • Ann. Phys. 4, 77 (1925).

  • Fact Aberration is always and only due to the
    motion of the observer (in the frame in which
    light moves at c.)

Sagnac Paradox
  • Around the circumference of a rotating platform
    (disc, Earth, etc.) lights velocity is c /- v.
  • Working principle behind laser gyroscopes.
  • Light travels East on Earth at c rotational
    velocity, West at c rotational velocity (465m/s
    at Earths equator).
  • Light travels at c in the non-rotating frame of
    the Earth! Not relative to any observer!

Relativity is Wrong
  • Every trajectory is a unique path relative to
    near and distant distribution of matter in this
  • There is ALWAYS a preferred framethe physical
    space/ether we call the local gravitational field
  • Light propagates at c relative to the
    distribution of matter, not the observer.

Why Dont They Get It?
  • To resolve these paradoxes, Relativists introduce
    a third frame (space-matter frame)
  • They then deny that they have done so, or they
    claim that this is still Relativity!
  • Their confusion and denial makes debate with them
    a fruitless endeavor.
  • Yes, the space-time model worksbecause it
    incorporates the effects of ethereal space on the
    observers measurements!

Einstein Admits It
  • Recapitulating, we may say that according to the
    general theory of relativity, space is endowed
    with physical qualities in this sense,
    therefore, there exists an ether. According to
    the general theory of relativity, space without
    ether is unthinkable for in such space there not
    only would be no propagation of light, but also
    no possibility of existence for standards of
    space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor
    therefore any space-time intervals in the
    physical sense.
  • Ether and the Theory of Relativity, 1920

Einstein forbids Ether theory
  • But this ether may not be thought of as endowed
    with the quality characteristic of ponderable
    media, as consisting of parts which may be
    tracked through time. The idea of motion may not
    be applied to it.
  • Ether and The Theory of Relativity, 1920

Note to self Try to apply the idea of motion
to it.
The Source of the Confusion
  • Einstein admitted that in the field of
    epistemology he had been an unscrupulous
    opportunist, resorting to realism, idealism,
    positivism, and Platonism as the situation seemed
    to require.
  • Albert Einstein Philosopher-Scientist, p. 684.
  • The Relativity program requires no ether
  • The facts indicate that space is ethereal
  • Einstein failed to resolve the contradiction

The Ether Taboo
  • Disciples lack the insight of the Master!
  • Ad hoc fixes for Relativity and QM allowed.
  • Mention ether and youre out!
  • Truth usually lies where one is forbidden to look!

Natural Philosophy
  • The creation, criticism, and testing of theories
    about what exists and causes our experiences.
  • Uses all the tools of human cognition logic,
    mathematics, and theory
  • Goes beyond our consciousness to theorize about
    what exists and how it causes our existence and
    causes what we experience.

Reconstruction of PhilosophyHierarchical Cosmism
  • EtherealEM, light, gravity,
  • Physicochemicalsubatomic, atomic, etc.
  • Biologicallife
  • Neuropsychologicalhigher animals
  • Linguo-mythicearly linguistic humans
  • Conscio-philosophicalour potential

Lower level entities and processes are organized
in new ways producing higher level entities and
Reconstruction of Theoretical Physics
  • Metaphysics Cosmism over Idealism
  • Epistemology Objectivism and Causal Theory over
    Subjectivistic modeling
  • Method Physical hypotheses before measurement
  • Macrocosm Ether Theory over Relativity
  • Microcosm Physical theory over QM

How to Think Ethereally
  • A knew, mostly unknown substance
  • Not matter as we know it
  • Ascribe to space whatever physical qualities are
    needed to fit and explain the facts.
  • Beware of analogies with known substances and
  • Strange qualities OK. Contradictions are out.

Modern Ether Surrogates
  • Frames (inertial, Earth, Sun-Star, etc.)
  • Gravitational field
  • Ruleslight velocity independent of source
  • Space (without -time), curved space
  • Higgs Fieldto give particles inertia in QM
  • Strings, Membranes
  • Additional curled up dimensions
  • Dark Matter
  • Parallel universes

What Do We Know about Ether?
  • EM mediumtransmits light at c, redshifts spectra
    of moving atoms
  • Is masslessmass (inertia/gravity) is due to an
    interaction between matter and space
  • Resists the acceleration of matter (inertia)
  • Is accelerated by matter?gravity
  • Resists the superluminal motion of particles
  • Causes the shortening of objects moving with it
    (Lorentz contractionif it exists)

Of Matter and Space
  • Newtons absolute space was a single, Cosmic,
    Euclidean ether that resisted the acceleration of
  • Lorentzs ether was Newtons ether plus EMthe
    medium in which light moved at c
  • If ether affects the motion of matter, shouldnt
    matter also affect the motion of ether?

Einsteins Insight
  • What is fundamentally new in the ether of
    general relativity as opposed to the ether of
    Lorentz consists in this, that the state of the
    former is at every place determined by
    connections with the matter and the state of the
    ether in neighboring places
  • Albert Einstein, Ether and the Theory of
    Relativity, 1920
  • Can we translate this insight into a physical
    theory of the ether?

Principle of Equivalence
  • Einstein likened being accelerated by a rocket in
    deep space with sitting on a planets surface.
  • The observer cant tell the difference without
    special instruments!
  • Gravity and inertial acceleration are different
    aspects of the same phenomenon
  • Inertial and gravitational acceleration are both
    acceleration wrt space!
  • In gravity, space is accelerating Earthward!

Inertial SpaceEther
  • Matter does not naturally accelerate wrt
  • If forced into acceleration wrt space it
    experiences weight
  • Free fall in a gravitational field is
    weightlessa state of non-acceleration wrt space
    due to falling towards the gravitator
  • On a planets surface, one is in a constant state
    of acceleration wrt accelerating space

Gravitational Acceleration
  • If matter causes its surrounding inertial space
    to accelerate towards itself at aGM/r2, then all
    the Newtonian aspects of a gravitational field
    are explained
  • No need for an added gravitational force
  • Inertial space flows!
  • Whats its velocity at a given height outside a

Gravitational Velocity
  • The velocity at any height will be the sum of the
    accelerations experienced from infinity to that
    radial distance r.
  • This is equal to the Newtonian escape velocity --
    11.2km/s at the Earths surface
  • Can this velocity explain other aspects of

Gravitational Velocity
  • A clock held stationary at any given height in a
    gravitational field should slow just as if it
    were moving at the escape velocity from that

Gravitational Redshift
  • The formula for the gravitational redshift is

Which is the SR/Lorentzian formula for the
redshift due to velocity.
Unified Theory of Redshift
  • Atoms in motion in space or held stationary in
    gravity are both redshifted by their velocity in
  • Unification Instead of two causesvelocity and
    gravitythere is one cause.
  • The mathematics of Flowing Space mathematics work
    and are much simpler than GR.

Expanded Principle of Equivalence
  • FS expands Einsteins principle of equivalence of
    gravitational and inertial acceleration to
    include the equivalence of gravitational and
    inertial velocity, and adds a causal hypothesis!
  • This expanded POE unifies Newtonian, Lorentzian,
    and Einsteinian physics.

Flowing Space
  • Inertial and electromagnetic ether-space that
    flows into or out of all matter with
  • aGM/r2 (Newtonian acceleration) and
  • (Newtonian escape velocity)
  • This yields both the Newtonian and the
    relativistic effects of gravity and of velocity

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Black Holes
  • If space flows into a mass with the velocity of
    light, then light itself cannot escape
  • This is the known formula for the Schwarzschild
    radius of a black hole

Gravitational Lensing
  • General Relativity formula for angle of
  • Since
  • the angle of deflection is
  • Its a simple spatial velocity effect!

Flowing space reproduces GRs successesmuch more
  • Herbert Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 29, 183 (1939).
  • Herbert Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 38, 413 (1947).
  • Robert Kirkwood, Phys. Rev., 92, 1557 (1953).
  • Robert Kirkwood, Phys. Rev., 95, 1051 (1954).
  • Tom Martin, General Relativity and Spatial Flows
    I. Absolute Relativistic Dynamics,
  • Tom Martin, On the Motion of Free Material Test
    Particles in Arbitrary Spatial Flows,

arXivgr-qc/0411060 v1 12 Nov 2004
Mainstream physicists have not applied the model
to weak gravity situations where it works equally
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Dark Matter?
  • Newtonian/Einsteinian physics contradicted by
    apparent excess gravity within and between
    galaxies and star clusters
  • Ad hoc hypothesisdark matter in a halo outside
    the galaxy.
  • Universe is 90-99 dark matter
  • Soooo-Why is there no dark matter in our solar

Nick Strobel's Astronomy Notes. www.astronomynotes
(No Transcript)
Inertia and Gravity2 Aspects of the Inflow
  • Matter is a field of acceleration within
  • Matter interacts dynamically with its surrounding
    spacethis tethers mass in space so that any
    additional acceleration is resisted.
  • To accelerate matter wrt space, one must apply a
    forcecreating opposing accelerations in space
    and thereby tension

  • Attach suction hose to sphere
  • Immerse in body of water
  • Harder to accelerate with
  • hose on than off
  • Analogous to tension created in massless ether by
    dynamic interaction of opposing accelerations.
  • Two sinks?attraction (gravity)
  • More sinks?increased attraction

Gravitational Attraction
Opposing accelerations in spacecausing spatial
tension that pulls the masses together
?Henry Warren
Density-Dependent Mechanism
To relieve tension, space must flow into the
system from outside. Increased density of
gravitators?excess gravity.
?Henry Warren
FS and Excess Gravity
  • In small flat system space easily flows into the
    plane of the system from above and below
    alleviating tension?Newtonian multiplication of
    sink accelerations
  • In dense star groupings or among galaxies,
    spatial inflow into region from outside is
    insufficient to reduce tension

Spatial Entrainment
  • A celestial body creates a uniform radially
    symmetrical field of spatial flow in its
    surrounding space
  • As it moves through space, every celestial body
    must sweep a large volume of surrounding space
    into its own free-fall motionits gravitational
    field completely conditions the surrounding
    spatial frame
  • No experiment on Earth can detect motion

  • Space is entrained into the Earths freefall
    motion but not spun into rotation
  • 465m/s E-W ether wind at equator
  • Stellar aberration NOT eliminated by entrainment
  • CMB Doppler shift NOT eliminated
  • Provides the physical mechanism for Machs
  • GR assumes entrainment (non-physically)

FS and Galaxial Rotation
  • All galaxial stars are entraining space into
    their revolutionary motion
  • Much of the space/ether of the galaxy is rotating
    with the starsthe galaxial inertial frame is
  • Stars require higher velocity in rotating frame
    to avoid collapse.
  • Our solar system is flat and less dense?no
    rotational frame dragging.

Spatial flow
  • Not an ideal fluid
  • has units L3T 1.
    has units L3T 2.
  • represents a volume rate that
    changes with timeit decreases as space
    approaches Earth.
  • There is volume loss!
  • Is space compressing? Condensing? Disappearing?

Different sink flow velocity
  • Unlike GR, predicts that a falling clock will run
    fastthe fastest clock falls with the escape
    velocity at any r.
  • Vertical light velocity anisotropy (/- escape
    velocity) may be detectable astronomicallyimplied
    by black hole
  • Anomalous motion and clock-slowing effects at the
    gravitational saddle point of the Sun and Earth
    and at other parts of the boundary between the
    solar and terrestrial flows. (Martin)

FS superior to SR/GR
  • Cosmic-Objectivisticvs. observer-subjectivistic
  • Much simplerconceptually and mathematically
  • No twin paradox?ether velocity?slower clock
  • Unites acceleration and velocityboth relative to
    the etherno disconnect.
  • Unifies transverse Doppler redshiftalways caused
    by velocity in ether
  • A physical theoryprovides a foundation for
    Cosmology and for theoretical physics Macrocosm
    and Microcosm

Beyond Consciousness to Cosmos Beyond Relativity
and Quantum Theory to Cosmic Theory
  • Why We Have No Physical Cosmology, and How to
    Start Creating One
  • Henry Lindner
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