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Volleyball Jump Serve


Ngoc Tran. Wiscdraella Joly. Kennary Choung. Background ... player throwing the ball into the air from the baseline and smashing it towards the opponent ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Volleyball Jump Serve

Volleyball Jump Serve
  • Manouchka Compte
  • James Finn
  • Marcia Beatty
  • Sophia Flabouris
  • Ngoc Tran
  • Wiscdraella Joly
  • Kennary Choung

  • Volleyball was invented in Massachusetts in 1895
    by William G. Morgan
  • Over 800 million people in about 130 countries
    play volleyball
  • Volleyball was entered into the Summer Olympics
    in 1996

  • The volleyball serve is the first attacking
    weapon in the modern game of volleyball
  • The serve consists of the player throwing the
    ball into the air from the baseline and smashing
    it towards the opponent
  • The potency of the serve is mainly due to its
    speed, giving the receiver only 0.5 seconds to

  • Goal of the serve is to create enough momentum,
    power, speed and acceleration to transfer maximal
    force to the final wrist snap, strategically
    placing the ball on the opponents side of the
    court away from the players.

Animation Video
Active Muscles
Kinematics of Volleyball Serve
  • Approach
  • Position self 3-5 long strides behind end line
  • Approach 3 steps 1st step toss ball
  • 2nd step jump
  • 3rd step spike

Jump Serve Phases Classified into three phases
  • Cocking Phase
  • Striking Phase
  • Deceleration Phase

Cocking phase
  • 1.This phase deals with preparing the body for an
    explosive force through the appropriate muscles
    and angles necessary in maximizing the potency of
    the serve.
  • 2. The arm begins to perform a shoulder abduction
    in the frontal plain (medial deltoid) to about
    90 as well as external rotation (teres minor and
    infraspinatus) while the elbow flexes (bicepss
    brachii) at 90 .
  • A. Extreme glenohumeral external rotation occurs,
    while putting a major valgus torque on the ulnar
    collateral ligament.

Cocking Phase Cont.
  • 3. The momentum of the take off as well as the
    cocking phase, leaves the serving arm behind
    causing a passive length tension relationship of
    non-contractive connective tissue.
  • 4. At this point the arm is ready to create
    explosive power through its delivering process.

(No Transcript)
Striking Phase
  • 1.The striking phase consists of an explosive yet
    controlled arm swing using its primary,
    secondary, and synergist muscle groups.
  • 2.The actions and their muscle groups are
  • a. Shoulder internal rotation
  • PM and agonist subscapularis, pectoralis
    major, anterior deltoid and teres major
  • Antagonist teres minor, infraspinatous,
    posterior deltoid and latisimus doris
  • Stabilizers core

  • b. Horizontal shoulder adduction
  • PM and agonist pectoralis major
  • Secondary mover and synergist serratus
  • anterior
  • Antagonist latissimus dorsi, rhomboids and
    middle trapezius
  • Stabilizers core
  • c. Elbow extension
  • PM and agonisttriceps brachii
  • antagonist biceps brachii
  • stabilizers core

  • d. Wrist flexion
  • PM and agonist flexor carpis radius and ulnar
    and palmaris longus
  • SM flexor digitorums profoundus and
    superficialis and flexor pollicis longus
  • Antagonist extensor carpis radius longus,
    brevis and ulnaris
  • e. Along with elastic components of the
    connective tissues

(No Transcript)
Deceleration Phase
  • 1.Purpose is to slow the arm-swing, gain
    stabilization and neutralize the momentum in
    order to prevent injury
  • 2.This begins after the ball has been hit
  • 3.To slow the momentum of the arm, torque is
    placed on the posterior deltoid and the biceps
  • 4.The external rotators of the rotator cuff
    muscles are also activated
  • a. teres minor
  • b. infraspinatous
  • 5. Rhomboids and the mid-traps are also activated

Picture of Deceleration
Newtons First Law
  • The game of volleyball envelops the forces (a
    force causes a change in the motion of an object)
    that exist in nature, which are described in
    Newtons Laws.  Newtons First Law says An
    object at rest remains at rest and an object in
    motion continues in motion  with constant
    velocity unless it experiences a net external
    force.  This law is also known as the law of
    inertia.  Examples of this law are seen in many
    different situations on the court.  If the ball
    is falling it will continue falling until it hits
    the ground or is acted upon (passed, set, or hit)
    by another player or force.

Newtons Second Law
  • Newtons Second Law states The acceleration of
    an object is directly proportional to the Force
    and inversely proportional to the mass of the
    object.  This can be seen in the equation Fma. 
    The force a ball is hit with can be found using
    this law.

Newtons Third Law
  • Newtons Third Law explains There is an equal
    and opposite reaction for every action.  A force
    acting on a body is the result of its interaction
    with another body, so forces always come in
    pairs.  In this case, action and reaction are the
    two opposite forces, or the action-reaction
    pair.  The force of the volleyball hitting the
    hand of the server would be considered the
    action the force of the passer on the ball would
    be the reaction.  This law explains the mechanism
    of how one would pass a ball.

  • Whenever a force causes displacement to an object
    it is called work.  The volleyball serve being
    displaced would then be considered work. The
    equation that defines work is WFd.  An angle
    between the force and the direction of
    displacement (theta) makes the equation

  • Power is very important in volleyball.  Maximum
    power is desired to have the most force behind a
    hit or serve.  Power is the time rate at which
    work is done.  When pairing this with the
    concepts of energy, the arm swing comes to mind. 
    The faster the arm swing, the more power there is
    behind the ball.  This supports the definition of
    power.  There are also many different areas where
    power is used in the sport, however the most
    obvious is hitting. 

  • Momentum can be described by the equation pmv. 
    The direction of the momentum will match the
    direction of its velocity.  A middle hitter will
    have more momentum than a defensive specialist. 
    This is because one, she is probably bigger, and
    two, she is required to move at much higher
    speeds than a defensive specialist.  From the
    momentum-impulse theorem, momentum is equal to
    the force exerted on the ball multiplied by the
    time the force is exerted.  Therefore, the
    shorter amount of time the players hand is in
    contact with the ball, the greater the force
    applied to the ball will be.  The momentum from
    the approach is already great, so the force will
    be great if the time is short.  This is also
    evidence to support why the arm swing should be
    fast.  It will lessen the amount of time that the
    hand is in contact with the ball.

  • Average acceleration is the rate of the change
    of velocity. It is measured in m/s2. In a game,
    acceleration can be used to find the speed of a
    player whose velocity changes while they are
    playing. Average acceleration has both direction
    and magnitude. This means that a server can move
    in a specific direction but also either speed up
    or slow down. This sets up for effective serve

  • Velocity is displacement in a given time.
  • Velocity is speed in a given direction.
  • Velocity is an example of how fast the volleyball
    moves from the server to the target.  The
    equation is Velocity distance/time

Internal Forces
  • Forces or torques that are within the studied
    object (i.e. human body, or the object being
  • Can cause movement of the body segments at a
    joint but cannot produce change in the motion of
    a bodys center of mass
  • Subscapularis and Pectoralis major are
    substantial internal forces within the internal
    rotation of the shoulder

External Forces
  • Forces that act on an object as a result of its
    interaction with the environment surrounding it
  • Most external forces are contact forces,
    requiring interaction with another object
  • Some external forces are non-contact forces
    including gravitational, magnetic and electrical
  • External forces of the jump serve is the contact
    of the ball and the hand at the striking phase

  • Torque is the product of force and its moment
    arm. It can be considered as a rotary equivalent
    to a force. There are two kinds of torque
  • The internal torque is the product of the
    internal force multiplied by the internal moment
    arm. It has the potential to rotate the forearm
    in a counterclockwise direction.
  • The external torque is the product of the
    external force (gravity) and the external moment
    arm. It has the potential to rotate the forearm
    in a clockwise direction (Neumann, 16).

Torque cont.
  • Volleyball players uses torque to spike the ball
    across the court. With their shoulders (the axis
    of rotation), they lift up their arm and produces
    a torque at the elbow to hit the ball in the jump

Mass Moment of Inertia
  • The Mass Moment of Inertia is the resistance to
    change in a bodys angular velocity. It is
    dependent on both the objects mass and on the
    distribution of mass about its axis of rotation.
  • Its relation to the serve of a volleyball, during
    the cocking phase, the biceps brachii elongates
    to increase the mass moment of inertia by
    increasing the force to accelerate the arm
    forward, to spike the ball.

Moment of Inertia
Radius of Gyration
  • The Radius of Gyration is the average distance
    between the axis of rotation and the center of
    mass of a body.
  • In the volleyball jump serve, the radius of
    gyration is between the shoulders and at a point
    anterior to the sacrum.

Volleyball Injuries
  • Most commonly related/due to
  • Blocking
  • Spiking
  • Serving
  • Passing
  • Setting

Types of Injuries
  • Acute (temporary)
  • Ankle sprains
  • Thumb finger sprain
  • Tear of the meniscus in the knee
  • Rotator cuff strain
  • Patellar femoral syndrome

Overuse Injuries of Shoulder Knee
  • Shoulder Tendonitis rotator cuff and tendonitis
    of biceps
  • Symptoms include pain in the shoulder
  • Patellar Tendonitis known as jumpers knee
  • Symptoms include pain at the lower portion of
    the patella
  • Inflammation at the bone tendon joint junction

Treatment Prevention
  • Stretching of the quadriceps and hamstrings
  • Those that are at higher risk are those that have
    a higher vertical jump and should decrease jump
    training to prevent damage
  • Integrated training program that involves proper
    flexibility, neuromuscular training, and
    addresses muscle imbalances
  • Application of ice to area
  • Anti inflammatory medication
  • Prevention includes stretching of the scapular
    and gnunonumeral muscles

Shoulder Pictures
  • What are the two main injuries for volleyball
  • Shoulder Tendonitis and Patella Tendonitis
  • Ankle Spain and Shoulder Tendonitis
  • Torn ACL and Ankle Spain
  • Lower Back Pain and Torn Quadriceps
  • True or false The external rotators of the
    rotator cuff muscles in the deceleration phase
    are teres minor and infraspinatous.
  • True or false The core is the major stabilizer
    for the spike part of the serve?

Questions cont.
  • What are some of the primary movers of the spike
  • Erector spinae, hamstrings and biceps
  • Gastrocnemius, quadricep, trapezius
  • Pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and tricep
  • All of the above
  • What action does the elbow perform during the
    spike phase?
  • Elbow Flexion
  • Elbow Extension
  • Abduction and Adduction
  • None of the above

  • Jump Serve Video
  • http//www.volleyballfiles.com/serving.htm
  • Tj's Physics of Volleyball      
  • http//www.mrfizzix.com/
  • Moellendorf, Suzanne.  The Physics of
    Volleyball.  1999. 
  • Sports Injuries to the Shoulder
  • Functional Exercise for the Volleyball Player
  • http//www.dolfzine.com/page603.htm
  • Animation Video
  • http//concise.britannica.com/ebc/art-71170

  • 3D Kinematic Analysis of the Volleyball Jump
  • http//www.coachesinfo.com/article/229/
  • Neumann, D.A. (2002). Kinesiology of the
    Musculoskeletal System. St. Louis, Missouri.
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