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HIGH TECH INNOVATION DRIVES SUSTAINABLE DEVEOPMENT

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Title: HIGH TECH INNOVATION DRIVES SUSTAINABLE DEVEOPMENT


1
HIGH TECH INNOVATIONDRIVES SUSTAINABLE DEVEOPMENT
  • High Tech and the Triple Bottom Line

2
OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION
  • The high tech industry is characterized by
    constant, dynamic innovation and we just in the
    beginning of the Internet age
  • Although we tend to take this innovation for
    granted, it serves critical human needs across
    the so-called triple bottom line of sustainable
    development
  • Social progress
  • Environmental protection
  • Economic advancement
  • Illustrations abound in this presentation
  • Principles for regulating high tech without
    harming innovation

3
HIGH TECH IS INNOVATION
  • We are in early stages of the information and
    communications revolution
  • By 2001, fewer than 60 percent of US population
    had PCs (SOURCE US Department of Commerce)
  • Phone, radio, electricity adoption rates all
    90-100, but took many years to get there
  • PC penetration rates for many countries is still
    very low
  • Innovation means doing OLD things more
    effectively and more efficiently
  • AND doing entirely NEW things

4
THE INTERNET ERA HAS JUST BEGUN
  • Although its roots go back further, the term
    Internet did not enter the popular lexicon
    until 1994
  • Internet access rates vary widely by country and
    region
  • Over half of US residents had access in 2001
  • In Europe it was 18
  • In Asia it was 4
  • But Internet access and usage is exploding.
    Growth rates in 2001
  • 10 in US
  • 33 in EU
  • 33 in Latin America
  • 44 in Asia
  • SOURCE International Telecommunications Union
    UN Commission on Trade and Development

5
THE INTERNET ERA HAS JUST BEGUN(contd)
  • In 2001, there were 500 million Net users, with
    one-third of new users coming from the developing
    world
  • E-commerce continues to grow rapidly, up 50
    worldwide in 2001
  • Wider availability of broadband is anticipated to
    accelerate growth further
  • SOURCE International Telecommunications Union
    UN Commission on Trade and Development

6
A GLIMPSE OF THE FUTURE
  • We are moving into the age of pervasive
    computing and ubiquitous connectivity
  • In the words of Internet pioneer, Vinton Cerf
  • What is the future of the Internet? It will
    become the 21st Centurys telecommunications
    infrastructure. It will become our medium of
    commerce and education, of research and medicine.
    It will be come a repository of the knowledge,
    wisdom and creativity of the human spirit.
    Internet will be there, for everyone.
  • The proliferation of broadband will help make
    this vision a reality
  • SOURCE Crandall and Jackson, Criterion
    Economics, 2001

7
HIGH TECH SERVES HUMAN NEEDS
  • Innovation in the high-tech industry makes
    sustainable development possible
  • Sustainable development is the triple bottom
    line
  • Social progress
  • Environmental protection
  • Economic advancement

8
THE SOCIAL DIMENSION
  • Health care
  • Greater computing power makes new diagnostic
    tools available
  • New health monitoring technologies revolutionize
    medicine
  • Peer to peer computing speeds medical research
  • Education
  • The Internet and wireless technologies bring
    education resources to remote locations
  • PCs and the Internet can aid the teaching many
    subjects, including reading and the environment
  • Communications
  • The Internet and wireless phone connections can
    bring wide variety of services to remote rural
    villages

9
THE SOCIAL DIMENSION (contd)
  • Art and Cultural Restoration
  • New technology opens new opportunities
  • Safety
  • More cost-effective auto safety testing through
    simulation
  • Advance auto safety systems make driving less
    hazardous
  • GPS technology promotes driver security
  • Advanced circuitry guard against electrical fires
  • Emergency Response and Homeland Security
  • Ground-penetrating radar and GPS make emergency
    response quicker and safer
  • Smart chemical sensors detect hazardous gases
  • Remote sensing and modeling used to detect
    changes in coastal regions, aid in military
    operations

10
TeraRecon 3-D Medical Imaging
  • High-speed broadband, combined with fast
    microchips, enable detailed, 3D medical imaging
  • 2D CT or MRI scans processed in centralized
    server, converted to 3-D model
  • 3-D image distributed via high-speed broadband to
    doctors at remote sites, accessed by basic
    desktops, laptops
  • Source TerraRecon, Inc Intel

Standard 2D image
TeraRecon 3D image
11
TeraRecon Benefits
  • Better patient visualization provides
    better/faster diagnosis
  • Saves film costs
  • Eliminates mail latency or doctor travel time
  • Source TerraRecon, Inc Intel

TeraRecon User Interface
12
eICU Centralized ICU Management
  • Using VISCUs technology, centralized ICU doctor
    can treat patients in multiple hospitals remotely
  • All bedside telemetry available
  • Videoconferencing for patient observation and
    interaction
  • Source Intel, VISCU Inc.

13
eICU Benefits
  • Trained ICU doctors reduce mortality by 20
  • But many more ICUs than trained ICU doctors
  • ICU doctors can work at multiple locations
    simultaneously, providing needed care

14
Given Imaging M2A Camera Pill
  • Ingestible pill containing camera, semiconductor,
    and radio transmitter
  • Flashes 4 pictures per second for 24 hours
  • Provides unparalleled medical imaging
    capabilities for endoscopy, proctology, and
    colonoscopy
  • SOURCE National Semiconductor

15
Given M2A Camera PillConvergence of
Technologies
Source SPIE The International Society for
Optical Engineering
16
OTHER HEALTH-CARE ADVANCES
  • Broader deployment of broadband Internet access
    will accelerate the growth of telemedicine
    applications that consume lots of bandwidth
  • Bio-sensors and software now available to link
    Alzheimers patients with their doctors to permit
    remote monitoring of condition (Source Intel)
  • Miniature computerized monitors can be implanted
    in the chest to detect and correct heart rhythm
    abnormalities (Source Washington Post, 12/30/02)
  • Subcutaneous computerized pumps can be used to
    precisely deliver insulin to diabetics (Source
    Washington Post, 12/30/02)

17
HEALTH CARE ADVANCES (contd)
  • Virtual house calls have become possible
  • Home monitoring of circulatory, heart, kidney
    conditions will be transmitted via Internet to
    doctors offices (Source Battelle)
  • Cyber-Care, Inc. already provides Electronic
    HouseCall, an Internet-based system that allows
    doctors to monitor patients in their homes
  • IBM working with medical researchers to perfect
    heart monitors, linked to cell phones, that will
    be able to automatically dial 911 when a joggers
    heart rate exceeds certain parameters
  • Coming soon Baby blankets with computerized
    sensors, equipped with radio transmitters, will
    monitor a babys vital signs and alert parents of
    problems

18
PEER-TO-PEER COMPUTINGSPEEDS MEDICAL RESEARCH
  • Peer-to-peer computing entails using the Internet
    to link the hard drives and processing power of
    thousands of computers for a variety of purposes,
    including file-sharing (e.g., Napster)
  • Peer-to-peer computing now being used to harness
    the computing power of multiple PCs to create a
    virtual supercomputer to perform computations
    required in medical and genetics research
    projects
  • Downloaded software and web link enable idle
    PCs to perform calculations on data packets,
    which are then returned, via web, to central
    program, in exchange for a new data packet
  • United Devices, Inc., the American Cancer
    Society, Oxford University and Intel are
    cooperating to use peer-to-peer computing to
    speed cancer research

19
THE INTERNET ANDRURAL EDUCATION
  • China Netcom, one of the countrys largest
    telecoms, is laying fiber-optic cable in rural
    areas.
  • In pilot phase, local elementary schools will
    receive broadband Internet hookups to enable them
    to participate in classes in Beijing and Honk
    Kong through teleconferencing
  • SOURCE Asiaweek.com, 10/11/02

20
DISTANCE LEARNINGUSING THE INTERNET
  • University of Ottawa (Canada) offers
    French-language courses via interactive
    video-conferencing
  • Permits students in remote regions of Canada to
    earn credit towards their degree
  • Students in Manitoba can earn their Masters in
    Nursing using video-conferencing and web-based
    learning software from the University of Ottawa,
    thousands of miles away

21
PCs HELP TEACH READING SKILLS
  • IBMs Watch-me!-Read software designed to help
    students in grades 1-5 learn how to read
  • Software includes over 110,000 words, spoken in
    multiple accents, as well as many books
  • Using Watch-me!-Read, student reads aloud PC
    pal spots errors and provides as-needed spoken
    assistance
  • Makes it easier for one teacher to work with
    multiple students who are progressing at
    different speeds
  • SOURCE IBM

22
The Internet and Environmental Education Intel
and the Nature Conservancy
Inspire science students, teachers and the
community to explore and protect the Last Great
Places on Earth.
TNC has designated 200 Last Great Places
23
Intel-TNC Last Great Places Website
  • Explore the Last Great Places
  • Website designed for 7-8-9 grade science students
    to take Virtual Tours of the Last Great
    Places
  • 1st Tour - San Pedro River (Sonoran Desert)
  • Provided in English and Spanish
  • 2nd Tour Berkshire-Taconic Landscape
  • Visit http//www.lastgreatplaces.org/

24
HIGH TECH TELECOMMUNICATIONSBRINGS THE WORLD TO
REMOTE LOCATIONS
  • Networks of telecenters established in parts of
    rural India, using a hub and spoke distribution
    model
  • Telecenters in each village can communicate with
    each other and with world through the Internet,
    featuring
  • Wireless Internet connections
  • Back up solar generators
  • Information content includes market prices, bus
    schedules, health care information, and education
  • SOURCE UNEP, 2002

25
Art Restoration and Preservation
  • Lasers, electron beams, and DNA mapping are used
    to restore and preserve paintings and other works
    of art.
  • For example, the picture on the upper-right is
    covered in black paint.
  • Hand-held lasers were used to carefully strip
    away the black paint to reveal the color paint
    beneath, as conventional methods, involving water
    or other solvents, can do little to improve this.
  • Source The Economist, 11/22/02

26
SIMULATING AUTO SAFETY
  • Cost of actual crash-testing limits amount of
    safety testing auto companies can afford
  • Audi is installing a simulation system, based on
    Intel PentiumTM and XeonTM processor technology,
    that allows simulation of virtually any plausible
    crash scenario
  • SOURCE Intel Corp.

27
AUTO SAFETY SYSTEMS
  • Antilock braking systems
  • Smart cruise control
  • Mercedes Benz has developed Proximity-Controlled
    Cruising technology that adjusts cruising speed
    to ensure safe distance from cars in front of
    cruising vehicle

28
GPS and Auto Safety and Security
  • A number of companies use GPS technologies to
    identify location of vehicles, both to track
    stolen cars and locate drivers in distress
  • Clifford Electronics Mobile Trace 1 system uses
    GPS technology to locate and track vehicles
  • Alpines Mobile MaydayTM system also uses GPS to
    track vehicles
  • GMs OnStarTM technology offers similar
    capabilities
  • SOURCE Edmunds.com

29
GROUND-PENETRATING RADARSAVES LIVES
  • GPR used to locate buried landmines that threaten
    troops or civilian populations
  • GPR permits systematic mapping of subsurface
    utility lines, ensuring that future construction
    avoids these hazards

30
HOMELAND SECURITY
  • Scientists are using remote sensing, modeling,
    and information management capabilities to
    predict the fate and transport of contaminants
    that could threaten human safety and health, as
    well as contribute to environmental disasters.
  • Emergency management and, therefore, increased
    security, can begin with an assessment of
    vulnerability and the development of contingency
    response plans to natural, accidental, and
    intentional events.
  • Source Battelle

31
EMERGENCY RESPONSE ANDHOMELAND SECURITY
  • GPS units placed on fire hydrants, water lines,
    and other infrastructure can improve speed and
    efficiency of emergency response (Source NASA)
  • Argonne National Lab has developed smart
    chemical sensor system technology that uses
    microchips to detect hazardous gases based on
    their unique chemical signatures (Source Argonne
    National Lab)
  • PQuake system, developed at Georgia Tech, allows
    emergency workers to enter and manipulate
    real-team damage assessment data on Palm Pilots
    and other PDA devices (Source National Science
    Foundation)
  • Enables quicker and safer planning of on-site
    responses to earthquakes and other disasters
  • Played an important role in recovery operations
    at World Trade Center site

32
ELECTRICAL SAFETY --GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT
INTERUPTERS (GFCIs)
  • GCFI sensors constantly monitor electrical flow
    in a circuit
  • When miniscule losses of current are detected,
    the GFCI stops current flow to prevent shock
  • GFCIs have played a major role in reducing home
    electrocutions
  • SOURCE National Electrical Manufacturers
    Association (NEMA)

33
THE ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION
  • Resource efficiency gains
  • Semiconductor progress in size, performance, and
    resource consumption
  • Energy efficiency and climate
  • Advanced PC power management reduces greenhouse
    gas emissions
  • The Internet is reducing climate gas emissions
    through structural changes in the economy
  • Energy efficient lighting also reducing climate
    impacts
  • Automobile emissions control

34
THE ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION (contd)
  • Monitoring, mapping, and modeling
  • Advanced sensors permit real time monitoring of
    environmental resources
  • Ground penetrating radar and GIS technology
    permit sophisticated management of natural
    resources
  • Teleworking
  • The Internet and advanced communications
    technology prevent commuter trips, reducing
    congestion, improving air quality and quality of
    life

35
SEMICONDUCTOR EFFICIENCY GAINS
  • 1000x Decrease in Size (Resource Savings)
  • 10,000x Increase in Performance (Energy Savings)
  • 100,000,000x Decrease in Cost

1 Transistor 6 1959
64 Meg DRAM 6 1999
36
HIGH TECH INCREASES ENERGY EFFICIENCY
  • Integrated circuits and sensors drive energy
    efficiency in many industry sectors
  • UPDATE TI DSP INFO FROM WRI
  • Advanced thermostats and building system
    controls..
  • UPDATE HONEYWELL INFO FROM WRI
  • The Internet drives both structural and
    efficiency gains
  • Teleworking reduces the need for energy-intensive
    air and auto travel

37
Intels Instantly Available PC (IAPC)
  • Intel developed technology licensed freely to
    any OEM
  • Based on ACPI open standard
  • Stand-by power state
  • Low power consumption
  • Network connectivity
  • Quick wake-up 5 sec
  • Exceeds Energy Star requirements (
  • Always On Always Connected
  • Enables appliance-like usage model.

38
Annual Carbon Dioxide Reductions in PCs
(Worldwide)
Source EPA ENERGY STAR Program
39
AMDS ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGY
  • AMD flash memory semiconductors, found in a
    variety of appliances, equipment and vehicles,
    consume very low amounts of power, e.g. 0.002
    0.036 watts, and these devices consume so little
    current in standby (0.0000002 amperes) that most
    test equipment cannot measure it.
  • AMDs microprocessor families support the Energy
    Star computer specification of 15 W watts
    sleep-state power consumption. AMD has also
    developed PowerNow!, a combination of software
    and hardware, which allows set top boxes to
    reduce power consumption up to 74.

40
HIGH TECH CAN HAVE HUGEPOSITIVE CLIMATE IMPACT
  • 1997 Japanese Telecom Ministry study estimated
    that a combination of high tech applications
    could meet 7 of Japans emission reduction
    commitments under the Kyoto Protocol
  • Significant emissions reductions projections
    included (in kilotonnes)
  • Telework 1,290
  • Intelligent transportation systems 1,200
  • Internet 500
  • SOURCE UNEP, 2002

41
THE INTERNET POTENTIAL
  • The Internet may be one of the most powerful
    environmental improvement technologies in history
  • The Internet enables energy efficiency gains of
    two basic types
  • Structural gains
  • Achieved when growth shifts to sectors of the
    economy that are not particularly
    energy-intensive such as the high-tech industry
    and away from sectors such as chemical
    manufacturing, pulp or paper manufacturing, and
    construction, which are energy-intensive
  • Efficiency gains
  • Achieved when businesses change their activities
    reducing energy use relative to their output of
    goods and services. This can happen, for
    example, through the spread of teleworking and
    more efficient logistics systems made possible by
    Internet.
  • Source Center for Energy Climate
    Solutions

42
INTERNET STRUCTURAL GAINS
  • Reduction of, or elimination of the need for,
    office space
  • -- By 2007, B2C and B2B e-commerce together
    could avoid the need for 1.5 billion square
    feet of retail space and up to 1 billion square
    feet of warehouse space.
  • Energy savings just from the operations and
    maintenance of these "un-buildings" could total
  • -- 53 billion kilowatt hours per year
  • -- approximately 13 percent of total electricity
    growth projected under business-as-usual
    scenarios.
  • Source Center for Energy Climate Solutions

43
INTERNET EFFICIENCY GAINS
  • Internet shopping
  • -- Internet shopping uses less energy to get a
    package to a house Shipping 10 pounds of
    packages by overnight air - the most
    energy-intensive delivery - uses 40 percent less
    fuel than driving roundtrip to the mall. Shipping
    by truck saves 90 percent.
  • Amazon.com saves significant energy compared to
    traditional bookstore. Energy cost per square
    foot of space
  • Traditional bookshop 1.10
  • Amazon.com .56
  • Source Center for Energy Climate Solutions

44
MACRO TRENDS VALIDATEENERGY EFFICIENCY ROLE OF
INTERNET
  • Rise of Internet has coincided with a decrease
    rather than an increase in energy intensiveness
    of economy
  • Comparing pre-Internet era (1992-6) to Internet
    era (1996-2000)
  • GDP growth rate increased by nearly 50 percent,
    while
  • Electricity demand growth rates actually declined
  • If Internet was a significant energy hog, you
    would expect to see accelerated electricity
    demand growth rates, not the decline the data
    actually show
  • And, we are in the early stages of Internet
    deployment
  • Source Center for Energy Climate Solutions

45
GDP vs. OTHER GROWTH RATES
Source U.S. Department of Energy, Energy
Information Administration
46
ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING
  • Modern energy-efficient lighting fixtures are
    4-6x more energy efficient than incandescent
    lighting
  • Use of these fixtures significantly reduces
    emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases
  • SOURCE National Electrical Manufacturers
    Association

47
Lifetime Air Pollution Emissions

KEY
Milligrams of Mercury
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • Hg from lamp disposal is small compared to Hg
    released from power generation required to
    operate lamp
  • Incandescent lamps contain no mercury but result
    in the highest Hg emissions
  • Similar reductions for greenhouse gasses and smog
    and acid rain forming pollutants.

Magnetic TCLP FailingRecycled
ElectronicTCLP CompliantIncinerated
Equivalent Light Output
ElectronicTCLP Compliant Recycled
Based on 20K burning hours, Hg content of 23 mg
per T12 lamp, and 8 mg per T8 lamp. Hg content
of fuels is the US weighted average for fossil
and non-fossil fuels, calculated from
Environmental and Health Aspects of Lighting
Mercury J.IES 1994. Disposal emissions assume
3 in residuals of recycling, 90 from
incinerators.
48
LEDs Drive Energy Efficient Lighting
  • Use of conventional light bulbs is being replaced
    by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that are
    controlled by semiconductors
  • LEDs are more efficient than bulbs at converting
    electricity into light.
  • The best white LEDs on the market emit 25 lm/W,
    which is almost twice as efficient as an
    equivalent tungsten-filament light bulb.
  • Source The Economist, 10/03/02

49
ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS
  • Electrical motors consume 63 of all electricity
    in the industrial sector
  • The National Electrical Manufacturers
    Association (NEMA) as established a Premium
    Motors standard to drive motor efficiencies
    beyond Federal requirements
  • Based on US Department of Energy (USDOE) data,
    broad adoption of Premium Motors standard could
    save
  • 5,800 gigawatt hours of electricity
  • 80 million metric tons of carbon emissions
    equal to taking 16 million cars off the road
  • SOURCE NEMA

50
ENERGY EFFICIENT HOMES
  • Combination of high tech sensors, smart
    thermostats, and PC controls can significantly
    reduce energy intensity of buildings and homes
  • Estimates of potential savings are in the 10-30
    range
  • SOURCE UNEP, Global e-Sustainability Report, 2002

51
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MAPPING
  • The potential is immense
  • Because innovative technologies have the
    potential to clean up and protect the environment
    and the public's health in a more cost-effective
    and efficient manner, finding ways to encourage
    their increased use is crucial. (Source USEPA,
    1999)
  • Marine environments
  • Bio-optical monitoring buoys, linked to
    satellites, can track fish populations, oil spill
    plumes, and monitor water quality (Source NASA)
  • IBM and Australian Institute of Marine Sciences
    have developed sophisticated modeling tools to
    visualize growth and destruction of coral reefs
    in response to varying water conditions (Source
    IBM)
  • Environmental GIS
  • Computer monitors combined with GPS can create
    detailed geographic information systems (GIS) for
    environmental management (Source NASA)

52
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING (contd)
  • Soil and hydrologic mapping
  • Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can map water
    tables and identify plumes of chlorinated
    solvents and other pollutants in the groundwater
    (Source MALA Geoscience)
  • Used for the detection of heavy metals in soil
    (primarily), XRF analyzers emit X-rays that
    irradiate the sample and excite the electrons of
    the element(s) present.
  • As these excited electrons return to their normal
    state they give off energy that is detected by
    the XRF equipment and the pattern is analyzed to
    determine the element.
  • After data collection, the analyzer is connected
    to a computer for data analysis and storage.
  • Source U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
    Sept. 1999

53
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING (contd)
  • Endangered species
  • Intel and the Duck Island Bird Sanctuary (Maine)
    have installed a network of inexpensive
    silicon-based sensors to monitor and report
    environmental conditions to central database
  • Sensors also used to monitor nesting behavior of
    endangered bird species h

54
TELEWORKING
  • Teleworking improves the environment and raises
    quality of life in several ways
  • Reduced congestion and lower vehicle miles
    traveled (VMT) reduce all forms of air pollution
    associated with the car
  • Local air quality
  • Global warming
  • Typical commute 18 miles translates into 15
    lbs of air pollutants (Source ITAC, 1999
    www..teletrips.com)
  • Telecommuting potential enormous
  • 9 of US workers telecommute occasionally
    (Source Rutgers U.)
  • 17 of Finns telecommute (Source
    www.eto.uk.org/eustats)
  • Projected 137 million teleworkers globally by end
    of 2003 (Source PC World)

55
TELEWORKING SUCCESS STORIES
  • Sun Microsystems
  • As of 11/02, 800 employees at Sun work full- or
    part-time from home
  • Drop-in Centers Sun provides mini-offices
    that enable workers to work at company sites near
    their homes, deferring commute to main campus
    until after rush hours
  • ATT
  • ATTs employee telework program eliminates 100
    million miles of commuting per year
  • Environmental benefits include
  • Saving 5 million gallons of gasoline
  • Reduction of 44,000 tons of CO2 emissions
  • Reduction of 500 tons of CO emissions
  • Reduction of 200 tons of NOx emissions
  • SOURCE Sun and ATT

56
TELEWORKING SUCCESS STORIES (contd)
  • Compaq estimated productivity increases in 15-45
    range as a result of their telework program
    (Source CO Telework Coalition)

57
THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION
  • High tech raises economic productivity and
    efficiency, enables higher standard of living
  • High tech employs many high-wage workers
  • B-to-C e-commerce is exploding
  • New markets and marketing technologies have been
    created
  • New technologies spur agricultural development
  • Teleworking provides multiple benefits

58
HIGH TECH RAISES PRODUCTIVITY
  • Rising standards of living depend on increasing
    productivity
  • Information and communications technology have
    been the principle drivers of recent productivity
    improvements
  • High tech contributed 50 percent of the
    acceleration in U.S. productivity growth in the
    second half of the 1990s. Source DOC, Digital
    Economy 2000
  • Falling prices of high-tech goods and services
    have reduced overall U.S. inflation by an average
    of 0.5 percentage points a year (from 1994 to
    1998). Source DOC, Digital Economy 2000
  • High tech helps create a highly-efficient economy
  • Information technology improves communications
    between suppliers and customers, facilitating
    U.S. manufacturers efforts to sell products and
    reduce inventory. Source DOC, Digital Economy
    2000

59
IMPROVING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
  • High tech helps create a highly-efficient economy
  • Information technology improves communications
    between suppliers and customers, facilitating US
    manufacturers efforts to sell products and
    reduce inventory (Source US Department of
    Commerce, Digital Economy 2000)
  • Utilities Afrique Exchange provides African
    utility companies an e-trading platform, helping
    sellers and buyers of power to reduce their costs
    through more efficient trading (SOURCE UNEP,
    2002)

60
HIGH TECH DROVE ASIAN GROWTH EXPLOSION
  • Asian high tech exports have increased
    dramatically since 1985
  • China From 5 in 1985 to 20 in 1998 (high tech
    exports as a percentage of total exports)
  • New tiger economies From 10 to 37
  • Mature tiger economies From 17 to 38
  • Asian growth rates (ex. Japan) have ranged from
    4 to almost 10 since 1985
  • Average manufacturing wages increasing as well
  • China Annual growth (1997-2000) 14
  • Sources International Labor Organization The
    World Bank Lall and Albaladejo (2001)

61
HIGH TECH PROVIDES HIGH WAGE JOBS, EXPORTS, and
RD
  • In 2001, the high tech industry employed over 5
    million Americans almost 11 of US manufacturing
    workforce
  • High tech is one of top export sectors of US
    economy accounting for over 25 of total US
    exports in 2001
  • In 2000, wages in US high tech industry were over
    90 percent higher than the average for entire
    private sector
  • The high tech industry is the largest investor in
    non-federally funded RD, leading to rapid
    innovation and long-term employment gains
  • SOURCE AeA US Department of Labor US
    Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census and
    Bureau of Economic Analysis

62
GROWTH OF INTERNET USEFOR B-to-C e-COMMERCE
  • 1995
  • 28 million in US have access to Internet
  • 1.5 million use Internet for making purchases
  • 2002
  • 149 million Internet users in US
  • 35.5 million use Internet for shopping each week
  • Widespread deployment of broadband Internet
    connections will make e-commerce more efficient
    and attractive, spurring rapid growth
  • Convenience yields time savings for consumers a
    huge societal economic benefit
  • SOURCES Vanderbilt University Nielsen Ratings
    Comscore.com Cyberatlas.internet.com

63
B-to-B e-COMMERCE WILL DRIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH
  • Most e-commerce today is B-to-B
  • Global Internet trade has been forecast to reach
    USD 6.8 trillion in 2004, or almost 9 of global
    sales of goods and services
  • Goldman Sachs has estimated that cost savings
    associated with B-to-B e-commerce can contribute
    a sustained additional 0.25 economic growth
    globally over next ten years
  • SOURCE UNEP Global e-Sustainability Initiative
    report, 2002

64
CREATING MARKETS OVER THE INTERNET
  • Viatru Co. links artisans in India with museum
    shops in the U.S.
  • Web site (www.mfa.org/poppy) provides virtual
    tour of goods as they are being made (Source
    NYTimes, 3/16/01)
  • The Manobi project provides access to
    Internet-enabled mobile phones
  • Allows farmers in Senegal to access up-to-date
    market prices for their crops before they decide
    which market to sell in (Source BBC, 10/6/02)
  • The MyBiz network in Malaysia provides local
    small and medium-sized businesses with a platform
    for collaborative marketing by linking 300
    companies up and down the supply chain (UNEP,
    2002)

65
3D MARKETING ON THE WEB
  • General Motors and other companies are using 3-D
    imaging technology to provide prospective
    customers a more realistic view of their
    vehicles, inside and out, via the web (Source
    Intel)

66
NEW TECHNOLOGIES SPURAGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
  • GIS systems can use geographical data to help
    improve agricultural yields by identifying where
    crops should be planted to take advantage of
    soil, slope, and hydrologic characteristics
    (SOURCE CATIE, The Tropical Agricultural
    Research and Higher Education Center, Costa Rica)
  • GIS systems can use forest data to help local
    communities and farmers manage rain forest cover
    and yields (CATIE)
  • Coming soon Computerized sensors, equipped with
    radio transmitters, attached to individual trees
    and plants to notify farmers of problems or
    disease (SOURCE Intel)

67
TELEWORKING PROVIDESMULTIPLE ECONOMIC BENEFITS
  • Teleworkers tend to be more productive
  • Teleworking promotes work/life family balance,
    improving job satisfaction and performance
  • Teleworking brings work to where the workers are,
    including rural areas
  • Seniors and disabled find it easier to work from
    home
  • SOURCE ATT, International Telework Association
    and Council (ITAC)

68
TELEWORK CAN BRING DISABLEDINTO THE VIRTUAL
WORKPLACE
  • Operation Job Match in Washington, DC
  • Assists in the purchase of IT and office
    equipment and training
  • Matches workers with disabilities with employment
    opportunities that permit teleworking
  • SOURCE Crandall and Jackson, Criterion
    Economics, 2001

69
PRINCIPLES FOR REGULATING HIGH TECH
  • Keep the big picture in mind
  • Do the intended benefits of the regulation
    outweigh negative impacts on product innovation?
  • Dont mandate specific technological fixes or try
    to pick winners
  • Will regulation freeze innovation and progress by
    dictating one solution?
  • Ensure sound science and consideration of
    trade-offs
  • Is there a valid technical foundation for
    regulation?
  • When you restrict one substance, are the risks of
    substitutes greater?
  • Focus on risk, not hazard in restricting
    substances
  • Are there really environmental and human
    exposures?
  • Harmonize with other countries if possible
  • Will the proposed requirements establish an
    uneven playing field or create a potential
    trade barrier or damper on competitiveness?
  • Openly consult with all interested stakeholders
  • Decision-makers should solicit input at an early
    stage from all interested stakeholders,
    especially technical experts, who represent those
    who have a direct stake in the outcome
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