Agricultural Societies Chapter 14 From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy The evolution of Government and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Agricultural Societies Chapter 14 From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy The evolution of Government and


1
Agricultural SocietiesChapter 14From
Egalitarianism to KleptocracyThe evolution of
Government and Religion
  • Text extracted from
  • Guns Germs and Steel
  • By Jared Diamond, 1997

http//images-eu.amazon.com/images/P/0393317552.03
.LZZZZZZZ.jpg
2
Government and Religion
  • Descendents of those societies that achieved
  • centralized government and organized religion
  • earliest
  • ended up dominating the modern world

3
Government and Religion
  • 4 main forces of history
  • Resulting in the broadest patterns
  • government religion
  • germs
  • writing
  • technology

4
Government and Religion
  • How did government and religion arise?
  • How did they become combined?

King Solomon
http//www.flholocaustmuseum.org/history_wing/anti
semitism/arts/visual_arts.cfm
5
Levels of Social Organization
  • Bands
  • Tribes
  • Chiefdoms
  • States

6
Bands
  • Tiny Populations typically 5-80 people
  • Most are close relatives by birth or marriage
  • All humans lived in bands until 40,000 years ago
    In recent history
  • African Pygmies, Bushmen
  • Australian Aborigines
  • Eskimos

7
Bands
  • Usually nomadic
  • live in areas where food is scarce
  • Land used by whole group
  • No specialization
  • all able-bodied individuals forage for food
  • Economic system
  • Reciprocal Exchange
  • No laws, police, or treaties to resolve
    conflicts
  • But being closely related helps

8
Bands
  • No stratification into classes
  • Egalitarian leadership based on
  •  personality
  •  strength
  •  intelligence
  •  fighting skill

9
Fayu in New Guinea
  • Four clans totaling 400 people
  • Normally live as single families scattered in
    swampy area
  • Come together once or twice a year to negotiate
    brides
  • Formerly numbered 2,000
  • Population reduced by Fayu killing Fayu
  • Lacked political and social mechanisms to resolve
    disputes

10
Tribes
  • Society with hundreds of people, usually settled
    in many villages
  • Few left today
  • Shared language and culture
  • More than one clan (kinship group)
  • Land belongs to clans within a tribe
  • Everyone knows everyone else by name and
    relationship

11
Tribes
  • Conflicts still solved by being closely related
  • If two New Guinea Tribesmen were both away from
    their villages and happened upon one another
  • They would engage in a long discussion to
    determine possible family ties
  • Otherwise, no reason not to kill one another

12
Tribes
  • Social System egalitarian
  • No upper or lower class
  • Each has debts and obligations to many others
  • No one can become more wealthy
  • Government still egalitarian
  • Decisions are made in a group
  • Big Man would have limited power, may look and
    live like everyone else

13
Reciprocity
  • Reciprocity was the Basis of Early Economic
    Systems

14
Reciprocity
  • Gift giving creates an obligation to return
    similar gifts
  • Feasting improves relations, prevents hostility,
    is an excellent way to store food
  • Reciprocity leads to intermarriage
  • Villages are connected by multiple ties of
    kinship
  • Reciprocity results in food security, balances
    inequities
  • Political leadership is bestowed on those that
    give the most

15

Kerekere in Moala
  • Moalans live in 1200 scattered villages in Fiji
    Pacific Islands
  • Kerekere is a formal request for a good or
    service
  • Can only kerekere a relative, but everyone  are
    relatives
  • Are duty bound to honor a kerekere if you have
    what is asked for
  • This system evens out inequity
  • Prestige comes from giving more than taking   

16
Chiefdoms
  • Population several thousand to tens of thousands
  • Arose about 7,500 years ago with rising
    populations
  • In 1492, widespread in
  •  N. and S. America
  •  Africa
  •  Polynesia

17
Chiefdoms
  • No chiefdoms left in 20th century
  • Prime land taken by larger state societies
  • Chiefdoms consolidated into states

18
Chiefdoms
  • Usually have Public Architecture
  • Temples
  • Tombs

Easter Islands
19
Chiefdoms
  • Most people unrelated to others
  • People dont know most others by name
  • For first time in history, people had to learn
    how to encounter strangers regularly
  • without attempting to kill them  

20
Chief
  • Held monopoly on right to use force
  • Held recognizable, hereditary office
  • Wore distinguishing clothes demanded respect
  • Was thought of as a god, or had a hotline to the
    gods

21
Chief
  • Centralized authority
  • Monopoly on information
  • Levels of Bureaucrats work under Chief
  • Many specialized jobs that can be done by slaves

22
Redistributive Economy
  • Chief receives food from everyone, then
  • Throws feast to redistribute
  • Stores it for later redistribution
  • Keeps much of it himself (tribute)
  • Chief also claims labor for construction of
    public works
  • Irrigation,
  • Lavish Tombs

20,000 workers built the Taj Mahal
23
Redistribution
  • Chief receives foodstuffs, goods from many
  • because he has power
  • Chief has power because
  • he regularly directs a flow of goods to his
    followers
  • Early city-states operated on this principle

24
Traders
  • Traders did not make a profit but were agents of
    the empire
  • Goods traded on a fixed-price basis
  • Did not buy low and sell high

25
Luxury Goods
  • Food surpluses generated by common people feed
  • Chief
  • Bureaucrats Priests
  • Craft Specialists
  • Luxury Goods reserved for Chiefs

26
Contribution Enforced
  • In Mesopotamia, police ensured that farmers
    contributed
  • Impersonality of city life
  • ends feelings of obligation of Chief to people
  • or vice versa

27
Good Chiefdoms
  • Good chiefdoms used tribute to provide important
    services to entire society
  • Irrigation
  • Religion
  • Defense

Roman Aquaduct
28
Kleptocracies
  • At worst, chiefdoms were kleptocracies
  • Transferred net wealth from commoners to upper
    class

29
Kleptocracies
  • How do kleptocracies keep from being overthrown?
  • Disarm the populace, arm the elite
  • Redistribute tribute in popular ways
  • Use monopoly of force to keep public order
  • Construct an ideology or religion that justifies
    kleptocracy

30
State Religion
  • State Religion
  • Provides bond between people
  • not based on kinship
  • keeps them from killing each other
  • Gives warriors a motive for sacrificing life in
    battle
  • now much more effective in conquest

31
States
  • Populations of 50,000 to
  • 1 Billion
  • Usually literate elites
  • sometimes literate population
  • Arose 3,700 BC in Mesopotamia
  • Later in Mesoamerica, China, Southeast Asia,
    Andes, West Africa

Babylon
32
Earliest States
33
States
  • True cities, characterized by
  • Monumental public works
  • Palaces of rulers
  • Accumulation of capital from tribute or taxes
  • Concentration of people other than food producers

34
States
  • Early states hereditary leader equivalent to a
    king
  • Democracies today crucial knowledge still
    available to only a few
  • Central control, redistribution of tribute more
    far-reaching
  • Even farmers not self-sufficient

35
Mesopotamia
  • Food produced by 4 specialist groups
  • Cereal farmers
  • Herders
  • Fishermen
  • Orchard and Garden growers

36
Mesopotamia
  • State took produce from each farming group
  • Redistributed necessary supplies
  • and the other foods not produced
  • Exchanged wool by long distance trade
  • for other essential raw materials
  • Paid food rations to laborers
  • who maintained irrigation systems for farmers

37
Slavery
  • Many states adopted slavery on much larger scale
    than chiefdoms because
  • More use for slave labor
  • More economic specialization
  • More mass production
  • More public works
  • Warfare on a larger scale meant more captives
    available

38
Bureaucracies
  • More complex bureaucracies
  • Formalized laws, judiciary, police
  • Laws often written (by literate elite)
  • Writing not developed until formation of state
    societies
  • Mesopotamia
  • Mesoamerica

Code of Hammurabi, Mesopotamia
39
Religion
  • Early state religions, standardized temples
  • Many kings divine
  • Kings often head of state religion
  • Mesopotamian Temple was center of
  • Religion
  • Economic redistribution
  • Writing
  • Crafts technology

Babylonian Ziggurat
40
Organization of States
  • States organized on political and territorial
    lines not kinship and tribe boundaries
  • States and empires often are multiethnic and
    multilingual
  • Bureaucrats selected more on ability than
    heredity
  • Modern states have non-hereditary leadership

Roman Empire
41
Why Do States Arise?
  • More complex societies usually conquer less
    complex ones
  • Advantage of weapons, technology, numbers
  • Centralized decision making more efficient in
    conquest
  • Official religions, patriotic fervor
  • make troops willing to fight suicidally
    fanaticism

Arab Muslim Empire
42
How Do Chiefdoms Become States?
  • Aristotle States are  the natural condition of
    human society.
  • knew only Greek Societies of  400 BC
  • Rousseau States formed by a social contract
  • a rational decision of people based on self
    interest.
  • Never happened this way
  • Small groups do not give up their sovereignty
    willingly

43
Irrigation Theory
  • Major civilizations had large-scale irrigation
  • Mesopotamia,
  • Egypt
  • China
  • Mesoamerica
  • Large-scale irrigation requires centralized
    bureaucracy for
  • Construction
  • Maintenance
  • Management

Pre-Incan Irrigation
44
Irrigation Theory Disputed
  • States formed to create irrigation systems?
  • But irrigation came after states formed
  • States did not always have centrally controlled
    irrigation

Hanging Gardens, Babylon
45
Population Theory
  • Strong correlation between size of population and
    complexity of society
  • Autocatalysis population growth leads to social
    complexity
  • Social complexity leads to intensified food
    production and population growth

46
Food Production Leads toSocial Complexity
  • Requires seasonal labor. 
  • After harvest, labor used for
  • public works,
  • wars of conquest
  • Stored surpluses permit economic specialization,
    social stratification
  • feed chiefs, elite, scribes, craftspeople,
    specialists,
  • feed farmers while they are working on public
    works

47
Food Production Leads toSocial Complexity
  • Sedentary living required for
  • Possessions
  • Technology
  • Crafts
  • public works
  • control of people

Mayan Temples, Mexico
48
Large Populations Require Complex Social System
  • Conflict resolution needed between unrelated
    people 
  • need laws and authority
  • Communal decisions impossible 
  • need structure
  • Reciprocal economy impossible 
  • Need redistributive economy
  • Density of population must be organized

Argebam, Iran
49
Amalgamation of Smaller Units
  • Occurs by merger under threat of external force
  • 40 Cherokee chiefdoms joined together,
  • American colonies joined together

50
Amalgamation of Smaller Units
  • Occurs by conquest among chiefdoms
  • Zulu state
  • Hawaii, Tahiti
  • Aztecs, Incas (before Spanish arrived)
  • Rome, Macedonian empire
  • Etc.

Aztec Empire
51
After Conquest
  • Bands
  • survivors can move away

52
After Conquest
  • Tribes
  • Need the land
  • Territory occupied.
  • No need for slaves
  • No need for survivors,
  • except women as wives
  • Defeated men are killed

53
After Conquest by States and Chiefdoms
  • Defeated can be used as slaves
  • Or defeated can be exploited
  • left in place to produce food, goods
  • Deprived of political autonomy
  • Made to pay taxes, tribute
  • Amalgamate their society
  • into victorious state or chiefdom

54
Aztec Tribute
  • Aztec Empire received tribute from its subjects
    and had tribute lists
  • Spanish wanted tribute from Mexico
  • Interested in Aztec Empires tribute lists

55
Aztec Tribute
  • Each year Aztec subjects paid Aztecs
  • 7,000 tons of corn
  • 4,000 tons of amaranth
  • 2,000,000 cotton cloaks
  • Huge quantities of Cacao beans, war costumes,
    shields, feather headdresses, amber
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Agricultural Societies Chapter 14 From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy The evolution of Government and

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Title: Agricultural Societies Chapter 14 From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy The evolution of Government and


1
Agricultural SocietiesChapter 14From
Egalitarianism to KleptocracyThe evolution of
Government and Religion
  • Text extracted from
  • Guns Germs and Steel
  • By Jared Diamond, 1997

http//images-eu.amazon.com/images/P/0393317552.03
.LZZZZZZZ.jpg
2
Government and Religion
  • Descendents of those societies that achieved
  • centralized government and organized religion
  • earliest
  • ended up dominating the modern world

3
Government and Religion
  • 4 main forces of history
  • Resulting in the broadest patterns
  • government religion
  • germs
  • writing
  • technology

4
Government and Religion
  • How did government and religion arise?
  • How did they become combined?

King Solomon
http//www.flholocaustmuseum.org/history_wing/anti
semitism/arts/visual_arts.cfm
5
Levels of Social Organization
  • Bands
  • Tribes
  • Chiefdoms
  • States

6
Bands
  • Tiny Populations typically 5-80 people
  • Most are close relatives by birth or marriage
  • All humans lived in bands until 40,000 years ago
    In recent history
  • African Pygmies, Bushmen
  • Australian Aborigines
  • Eskimos

7
Bands
  • Usually nomadic
  • live in areas where food is scarce
  • Land used by whole group
  • No specialization
  • all able-bodied individuals forage for food
  • Economic system
  • Reciprocal Exchange
  • No laws, police, or treaties to resolve
    conflicts
  • But being closely related helps

8
Bands
  • No stratification into classes
  • Egalitarian leadership based on
  •  personality
  •  strength
  •  intelligence
  •  fighting skill

9
Fayu in New Guinea
  • Four clans totaling 400 people
  • Normally live as single families scattered in
    swampy area
  • Come together once or twice a year to negotiate
    brides
  • Formerly numbered 2,000
  • Population reduced by Fayu killing Fayu
  • Lacked political and social mechanisms to resolve
    disputes

10
Tribes
  • Society with hundreds of people, usually settled
    in many villages
  • Few left today
  • Shared language and culture
  • More than one clan (kinship group)
  • Land belongs to clans within a tribe
  • Everyone knows everyone else by name and
    relationship

11
Tribes
  • Conflicts still solved by being closely related
  • If two New Guinea Tribesmen were both away from
    their villages and happened upon one another
  • They would engage in a long discussion to
    determine possible family ties
  • Otherwise, no reason not to kill one another

12
Tribes
  • Social System egalitarian
  • No upper or lower class
  • Each has debts and obligations to many others
  • No one can become more wealthy
  • Government still egalitarian
  • Decisions are made in a group
  • Big Man would have limited power, may look and
    live like everyone else

13
Reciprocity
  • Reciprocity was the Basis of Early Economic
    Systems

14
Reciprocity
  • Gift giving creates an obligation to return
    similar gifts
  • Feasting improves relations, prevents hostility,
    is an excellent way to store food
  • Reciprocity leads to intermarriage
  • Villages are connected by multiple ties of
    kinship
  • Reciprocity results in food security, balances
    inequities
  • Political leadership is bestowed on those that
    give the most

15

Kerekere in Moala
  • Moalans live in 1200 scattered villages in Fiji
    Pacific Islands
  • Kerekere is a formal request for a good or
    service
  • Can only kerekere a relative, but everyone  are
    relatives
  • Are duty bound to honor a kerekere if you have
    what is asked for
  • This system evens out inequity
  • Prestige comes from giving more than taking   

16
Chiefdoms
  • Population several thousand to tens of thousands
  • Arose about 7,500 years ago with rising
    populations
  • In 1492, widespread in
  •  N. and S. America
  •  Africa
  •  Polynesia

17
Chiefdoms
  • No chiefdoms left in 20th century
  • Prime land taken by larger state societies
  • Chiefdoms consolidated into states

18
Chiefdoms
  • Usually have Public Architecture
  • Temples
  • Tombs

Easter Islands
19
Chiefdoms
  • Most people unrelated to others
  • People dont know most others by name
  • For first time in history, people had to learn
    how to encounter strangers regularly
  • without attempting to kill them  

20
Chief
  • Held monopoly on right to use force
  • Held recognizable, hereditary office
  • Wore distinguishing clothes demanded respect
  • Was thought of as a god, or had a hotline to the
    gods

21
Chief
  • Centralized authority
  • Monopoly on information
  • Levels of Bureaucrats work under Chief
  • Many specialized jobs that can be done by slaves

22
Redistributive Economy
  • Chief receives food from everyone, then
  • Throws feast to redistribute
  • Stores it for later redistribution
  • Keeps much of it himself (tribute)
  • Chief also claims labor for construction of
    public works
  • Irrigation,
  • Lavish Tombs

20,000 workers built the Taj Mahal
23
Redistribution
  • Chief receives foodstuffs, goods from many
  • because he has power
  • Chief has power because
  • he regularly directs a flow of goods to his
    followers
  • Early city-states operated on this principle

24
Traders
  • Traders did not make a profit but were agents of
    the empire
  • Goods traded on a fixed-price basis
  • Did not buy low and sell high

25
Luxury Goods
  • Food surpluses generated by common people feed
  • Chief
  • Bureaucrats Priests
  • Craft Specialists
  • Luxury Goods reserved for Chiefs

26
Contribution Enforced
  • In Mesopotamia, police ensured that farmers
    contributed
  • Impersonality of city life
  • ends feelings of obligation of Chief to people
  • or vice versa

27
Good Chiefdoms
  • Good chiefdoms used tribute to provide important
    services to entire society
  • Irrigation
  • Religion
  • Defense

Roman Aquaduct
28
Kleptocracies
  • At worst, chiefdoms were kleptocracies
  • Transferred net wealth from commoners to upper
    class

29
Kleptocracies
  • How do kleptocracies keep from being overthrown?
  • Disarm the populace, arm the elite
  • Redistribute tribute in popular ways
  • Use monopoly of force to keep public order
  • Construct an ideology or religion that justifies
    kleptocracy

30
State Religion
  • State Religion
  • Provides bond between people
  • not based on kinship
  • keeps them from killing each other
  • Gives warriors a motive for sacrificing life in
    battle
  • now much more effective in conquest

31
States
  • Populations of 50,000 to
  • 1 Billion
  • Usually literate elites
  • sometimes literate population
  • Arose 3,700 BC in Mesopotamia
  • Later in Mesoamerica, China, Southeast Asia,
    Andes, West Africa

Babylon
32
Earliest States
33
States
  • True cities, characterized by
  • Monumental public works
  • Palaces of rulers
  • Accumulation of capital from tribute or taxes
  • Concentration of people other than food producers

34
States
  • Early states hereditary leader equivalent to a
    king
  • Democracies today crucial knowledge still
    available to only a few
  • Central control, redistribution of tribute more
    far-reaching
  • Even farmers not self-sufficient

35
Mesopotamia
  • Food produced by 4 specialist groups
  • Cereal farmers
  • Herders
  • Fishermen
  • Orchard and Garden growers

36
Mesopotamia
  • State took produce from each farming group
  • Redistributed necessary supplies
  • and the other foods not produced
  • Exchanged wool by long distance trade
  • for other essential raw materials
  • Paid food rations to laborers
  • who maintained irrigation systems for farmers

37
Slavery
  • Many states adopted slavery on much larger scale
    than chiefdoms because
  • More use for slave labor
  • More economic specialization
  • More mass production
  • More public works
  • Warfare on a larger scale meant more captives
    available

38
Bureaucracies
  • More complex bureaucracies
  • Formalized laws, judiciary, police
  • Laws often written (by literate elite)
  • Writing not developed until formation of state
    societies
  • Mesopotamia
  • Mesoamerica

Code of Hammurabi, Mesopotamia
39
Religion
  • Early state religions, standardized temples
  • Many kings divine
  • Kings often head of state religion
  • Mesopotamian Temple was center of
  • Religion
  • Economic redistribution
  • Writing
  • Crafts technology

Babylonian Ziggurat
40
Organization of States
  • States organized on political and territorial
    lines not kinship and tribe boundaries
  • States and empires often are multiethnic and
    multilingual
  • Bureaucrats selected more on ability than
    heredity
  • Modern states have non-hereditary leadership

Roman Empire
41
Why Do States Arise?
  • More complex societies usually conquer less
    complex ones
  • Advantage of weapons, technology, numbers
  • Centralized decision making more efficient in
    conquest
  • Official religions, patriotic fervor
  • make troops willing to fight suicidally
    fanaticism

Arab Muslim Empire
42
How Do Chiefdoms Become States?
  • Aristotle States are  the natural condition of
    human society.
  • knew only Greek Societies of  400 BC
  • Rousseau States formed by a social contract
  • a rational decision of people based on self
    interest.
  • Never happened this way
  • Small groups do not give up their sovereignty
    willingly

43
Irrigation Theory
  • Major civilizations had large-scale irrigation
  • Mesopotamia,
  • Egypt
  • China
  • Mesoamerica
  • Large-scale irrigation requires centralized
    bureaucracy for
  • Construction
  • Maintenance
  • Management

Pre-Incan Irrigation
44
Irrigation Theory Disputed
  • States formed to create irrigation systems?
  • But irrigation came after states formed
  • States did not always have centrally controlled
    irrigation

Hanging Gardens, Babylon
45
Population Theory
  • Strong correlation between size of population and
    complexity of society
  • Autocatalysis population growth leads to social
    complexity
  • Social complexity leads to intensified food
    production and population growth

46
Food Production Leads toSocial Complexity
  • Requires seasonal labor. 
  • After harvest, labor used for
  • public works,
  • wars of conquest
  • Stored surpluses permit economic specialization,
    social stratification
  • feed chiefs, elite, scribes, craftspeople,
    specialists,
  • feed farmers while they are working on public
    works

47
Food Production Leads toSocial Complexity
  • Sedentary living required for
  • Possessions
  • Technology
  • Crafts
  • public works
  • control of people

Mayan Temples, Mexico
48
Large Populations Require Complex Social System
  • Conflict resolution needed between unrelated
    people 
  • need laws and authority
  • Communal decisions impossible 
  • need structure
  • Reciprocal economy impossible 
  • Need redistributive economy
  • Density of population must be organized

Argebam, Iran
49
Amalgamation of Smaller Units
  • Occurs by merger under threat of external force
  • 40 Cherokee chiefdoms joined together,
  • American colonies joined together

50
Amalgamation of Smaller Units
  • Occurs by conquest among chiefdoms
  • Zulu state
  • Hawaii, Tahiti
  • Aztecs, Incas (before Spanish arrived)
  • Rome, Macedonian empire
  • Etc.

Aztec Empire
51
After Conquest
  • Bands
  • survivors can move away

52
After Conquest
  • Tribes
  • Need the land
  • Territory occupied.
  • No need for slaves
  • No need for survivors,
  • except women as wives
  • Defeated men are killed

53
After Conquest by States and Chiefdoms
  • Defeated can be used as slaves
  • Or defeated can be exploited
  • left in place to produce food, goods
  • Deprived of political autonomy
  • Made to pay taxes, tribute
  • Amalgamate their society
  • into victorious state or chiefdom

54
Aztec Tribute
  • Aztec Empire received tribute from its subjects
    and had tribute lists
  • Spanish wanted tribute from Mexico
  • Interested in Aztec Empires tribute lists

55
Aztec Tribute
  • Each year Aztec subjects paid Aztecs
  • 7,000 tons of corn
  • 4,000 tons of amaranth
  • 2,000,000 cotton cloaks
  • Huge quantities of Cacao beans, war costumes,
    shields, feather headdresses, amber
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