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Jonah and the

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Title: Jonah and the


1
Jonah and the Gourd at NinevehConsequences of
a Classic Translation
Jules Janick Department of Horticulture
Landscape Architecture Purdue University West
Lafayette IN 47907-2010, USA janick_at_purdue.edu Ha
rry S. Paris Agricultural Research
Organization Newe Yaar Research Center Ramat
Yishay 30-095 Israel hsparis_at_volcani.agri.gov.il
2
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3
The Story of Jonah (8th or 7th century BCE)
  • Jonah is ordered by God to wicked city of Nineveh
    to preach
  • He disobeys, flees to Tarshish on a boat beset by
    storms, confesses he is to blame, and is thrown
    overboard
  • Swallowed by a providential large fish where he
    remains for 3 days and 3 nights
  • Seeks forgiveness in a psalm of thanksgiving and
    is vomited up on shore
  • Proceeds to Nineveh, preaches populace atones
    and is saved
  • Jonah, unhappy with result, watches the city from
    a booth
  • Fast growing plant provides shade but at break of
    dawn a worm attacks the plant which withers and
    dies in day
  • Jonah distressed at the loss of the plant is
    rebuked by God since 120,000 Ninevans were saved

4
Story of Jonah appears in Hebrew bible Later
referred to in New Testament, twice by Jesus
Included in the Quran
5
12th century manuscript, Sinai Peninsula,
Monastery of Saint Catherine
6
The Prophet Jonah, Michelangelo, 1511Sistine
Chapel
7
Paleo-Christian sculpture from Phrygia (Central
Turkey), ca. 270280
8
Mosaic at Tunis 3rd4th C
9
Mosaic at Aquileia, Italy, 4th C
10
Tunisian mosaic images Lagenaria siceraria
2nd C
3rd C
11
Villa Farnesina 15151518Lagenaria siceraria
var. longissima
12
Two Questions of Natural History and
Horticulture
  • What was the fish?
  • Hebrew bible says large fish
  • New Testament refers to a whale (Matthew
    1039-40)

13
Pakistani miniature
14
  • What was the plant?
  • Hebrew bible refers to the plant as Qiqayon
    castor (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae)
  • Word derives from ancient Egyptian (kiki)
  • Castor oil is shemen qiq in Hebrew

15
Septuagint Greek translation of the Hebrew
bible (3rd to 1st century BCE)Qiqayon becomes
Kolokinthi (Citrullus colocynthis,
Cucurbitaceae)
Dioscorides, De Materia MedicaAniciae Julianae
Codex, ca. 512
16
  • Vulgate, Latin translation of Bible by Jerome
  • Realizing that kolokinthi is wrong, he refers to
    plant as ivy
  • Hedera (Latin) kissos (Greek)
  • In other Latin translations
  • Kolocinthi becomes cucurbita (gourd)

17
  • Quran (Koran)
  • Plant identified as qaqtin (Sura 37-139-146),
    usually identified as
  • Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)
  • Identification as kharua (qiqayon or castor) not
    accepted in Islamic tradition

18
  • King James Version (English translation 1606)
  • Refers to the plant as gourd from cucurbita
  • Douay Version (from French) via Vulgate
  • Plant still referred to as ivy
  • Revised Standard Version
  • Just called a plant
  • New International Version
  • Vine

19
Mistranslation causes a problem between Saint
Augustine of Hippo and Saint Jerome
20
Augustines letter of 403
  • A certain bishop, one of our brethren, having
    introduced in the church over which he presides
    the reading of your version, came upon a word in
    the book of the prophet Jonah, of which you have
    give a very different rendering from that which
    had been of old familiar to the senses and memory
    of all the worshippers, and had been chanted for
    so many generations in the church.
  • Thereupon arose such a tumult in the
    congregation, especially amongst the Greeks,
    correcting what had been read, and denouncing the
    translation as false, that the bishop was
    compelled to ask the testimony of the Jewish
    residents (it was in the town of Oea).

21
  • These, whether from ignorance or from spite,
    answered that the words in the Hebrew manuscripts
    were correctly rendered in the Greek version, and
    in the Latin one taken from it.
  • What further need I say? The man was compelled
    to correct your version in that passage as if it
    have been falsely translated, as he desired not
    to be left without a congregation a calamity
    which he narrowly escaped.

22
Jeromes reply of 406
  • You tell me that I have given a wrong translation
    of some word in Jonah, and that a worthy bishop
    narrowly escaped losing his charge through the
    clamorous tumult of his people, which was caused
    by the different rendering of this one word.
  • At the same time, you withhold from me what the
    word was which I have mistranslated thus taking
    away the possibility of my saying anything in my
    own vindication, lest my reply should be fatal to
    your objection.

23
  • Perhaps it is the old dispute about the gourd
    which has been revived, after slumbering for many
    long years since the illustrious man, brought
    against me the charge of giving in my translation
    the word ivy instead of gourd.
  • At present, I deem it enough to say that in that
    passage, where the Septuagint has gourd, and
    Aquila and the others have rendered the word
    ivy (kissos), the Hebrew MS. has ciceion,
    which is in the Syriac tongue, as now spoken,
    ciceia. It is a kind of shrub having large
    leaves like a vine, and when planted it quickly
    springs up to the size of a small tree, standing
    upright by its own stem, without requiring any
    support of canes or poles, as both gourds and ivy
    do.

24
  • If, therefore, in translating word for word, I
    had put the word ciceia, no one would know what
    it meant if I had used the word gourd, I would
    have said what is not found in the Hebrew. I
    therefore put down ivy, that I might not differ
    from all other translators.
  • But if your Jews said, either through malice or
    ignorance, as you yourself suggest, that the word
    is in the Hebrew text which is found in the Greek
    and Latin versions it is evident that they were
    either unacquainted with Hebrew, or have been
    pleased to say what was not true, in order to
    make sport of the gourd-planters.

25
Conclusions
  • The identification of the fast growing plant in
    the book of Jonah as a gourd is due to a
    mistranslation of the Hebrew word quqiyon
    (castor) to the Greek word kolokynthis, the Latin
    word cucurbita, and the Arabic yaqtin. All these
    words have similar K sounds that may explain the
    mistranslations. The misidentification of the
    plant as a gourd was later reflected in medieval
    Jewish iconography.

26
  • The mistranslation is reflected in iconography.
    The transformation of castor into an edible
    fruited cucurbit, and illustrated as Lagenaria
    (bottle gourds), grown on trellises is supporting
    evidence that Lagenaria was widely grown in
    antiquity.
  • Uses of Lagenaria include food, vessels, and even
    swimming floats, as described by Columella and
    Pliny in the first century and illustrated in
    Roman mosaics.

27
  • The qiqayon of Jonah was a lush, fast-growing
    provider of shade. By rendering it an
    edible-fruited cucurbit, it became, in addition,
    a symbol of sustenance, well-being, and life
    itself.

28
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