Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1b7451-M2JjY


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy


Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont; in Rome, Republic proclaimed ... Engaged in conspiracies and propaganda. Superceded by Risorgimento. never succeeded. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:443
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 16
Provided by: tomm183


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy

Cavour and the Italian War of 1859 The
Unification of Italy
Italian Unification
Garibaldi invades Sicily Italy -Piemontese
army under Victor Emmanuel take over from
Napoleon I crowns self King of Italy
Charles Albert abdicates in favor of Victor
Emmanuel II (1849)
Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont 
in Rome, Republic proclaimed with Mazzini as head
Cavour becomes Prime Minister in Sardinia-Piedmont
Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
1805 1831 1848 1850 1861 1871
"Young Italy" founded by Mazzini.
Italian troops occupy Rome when French abandon
city 1871 (July)   Rome made Capital of Kingdom
War between Austria and Sardinia Piedmont
France gives Sardinia gains Lombardy
Charles Albert invades Lombardy  Union of
Venetia and Piedmont declared, soon Battle of
Custozza, Charles Albert defeated
  • roots stem from a shared sense of regional and
    cultural identity,
  • French Revolution and the effects of Napoleons
    conquests caused it to emerge as a force in
  • also movement towards modernization, as countries
    attempted to industrialize in order to compete
    with other nations and tried to modernize their
    political systems.
  • As an intellectual movement, nationalism
    emphasized the importance of culture and cultural
  • rejected the universality of the Enlightenment
    and stated that each country had its own unique
    values and was suited to its own system of
  • thinkers (like German nationalists Herder) urged
    their countrymen to celebrate their cultural
  • led to a fascination with folk culture and
    national history.
  • As a political movement, the goal of nationalism
    was independence both actual and economic.

Two different types of nationalism
  • Liberal ?
  • combined w/ideas of the French Revolution, the
    liberal nationalists stated that no country is
    better than another, but that each country has
    its own unique qualities. All nations deserve to
    be unified and led by people of their own
    nationality who can provide the nation with a
    constitution that is rational, reasonable and
    just, they said.
  • Militaristic ?
  • associated w/ideas of social Darwinism and
    Realpolitik, the claim of militaristic
    nationalism is that ones nation is better, not
    just different. Machiavellian politicians who are
    out for personal power can exploit this form of

Italian Nationalism
  • Several small and large states in Italy existed
  • Reorganized by Napoleon and the Congress of
  • The governments were content with their
  • but governments were distant from their people
  • people desired a nation that reflected the past
    glories of Italy and were generally disgusted
    with their govs
  • Risorgimento resurgence
  • movement for Italian national unity and
    independence, begun 1815.
  • Leading figures in the movement included Cavour,
    Mazzini, and Garibaldi

  • known as the spirit or the heart of Italian
  • one of the first Italian nationalists
  • a romantic
  • emphasized Italys uniqueness and special role in
  • saw the expression of natural communities, the
    basis for popular democracy and international
  • Young Italy
  • Secret society
  • Engaged in conspiracies and propaganda
  • Superceded by Risorgimento
  • never succeeded.
  • His big chance came in 1848, but, when Austria
    regained control, Mazzini left.

  • 1848 efforts failed when the Pope denounced the
    radical movement
  • Austrias far reaching influence was another
  • Outside assistance would be needed to separate
    Italy from Austrias umbrella of control
  • King Victor Emmanuel of the Piedmont (Sardinia)
  • Designs on surrounding territories

Pius IX
Victor Emmanuel
Camillo di Cavour
  • King Victor Emmanuels (Savoy) minister
  • Cavour was a Western liberal/Realpolitik
  • believed in progress, tolerance, limited
  • Directed an efficient government
  • Built up the infrastructure (RR, docks)
  • Limited the role of the Church
  • Cutting down number of holidays, limiting right
    of church bodies to own real estate, abolishing
    church courts without consulting the Holy See
  • Opened up free trade
  • saw nationalism as an avenue to modernization
  • Engineered the unification process
  • Embraced the toughness of mind and the politics
    of reality
  • Had no sympathy for revolutionary romantics like
  • was no fan of war but was OK with it to unify
    Italy under house of Savoy
  • he took Piedmont in Crimean War
  • Realized that ousting Austria required the help
    of France
  • Supported France in the Crimean War
  • Wanted to pit French against Austria

Napoleon III
  • was agreeable to war against Austria
  • Had traveled Italy and participated in
    insurrections there in 1831
  • Saw himself as the apostle of modernity
  • Italy was Bonaparte familys ancestral home
  • Believed in idea of doctrine of nationalities
  • Consolidation of nations meant progress
  • Would show France that he supported liberal
    causes (by fighting reactionary Austria)
  • Silence his critics
  • An Italian republican Orsini attempted to kill
    Napoleon with a bomb in 1858
  • this motivated Nap to make up his mind
  • 1859 French troops move against Austria

Franco-Austrian Agreement
  • Called the Plombieres Agreement
  • b/t Cavour Louis Napoleon
  • stated that if Piedmont were at war w/Austria
    then France would back them up
  • Cavour wanted Venetia and Lombardy
  • but he never intended to fully unify Italy
  • Napoleon wanted to weaken Austria, get Nice and
    Savoy, and get back at the Austrians (for
    Congress of Vienna)
  • were just looking for a way to start the war when
    Austria did some stupid things
  • it imposed military conscription on Venetia and
    Lombardy (super unpopular),
  • sent a declaration of total disarmament or war to
  • talk about playing right into their hands

Napoleons Quandary
  • French defeat Austrian resistance
  • But Prussia was mobilizing
  • Nervous about French sphere of influence
  • Italy began to erupt with revolutionary activity
  • local governments were overthrown
  • Calls for unification with Piedmont were made
  • Napoleon is no fan of revolution
  • Papacy was threatened so French soldiers were
    sent in to protect pope
  • French Catholics resented the loss of the Popes
    temporal power
  • Blamed Napoleon for this godless war
  • Napoleon III was fighting on both sides of the
  • Napoleon III made peace with Austria
  • This stupefied Cavour

Austrian-Sardinian war
  • Napoleon III quits b/c he realizes he is falling
    into a trap (worried about Piedmont getting too
  • Piedmont received Lombardi
  • Austria kept Venetia
  • Offered compromise to the Italian unity question
  • Created a federal union of existing governments
    with the Pope in charge
  • Not what Cavour or Piedmontese or the patriots
  • Revolution continued and drove out rulers of
    Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Romagna
  • Piedmont annexed these territories and held a
  • Pope excommunicated leaders
  • Romagna had been part of Papal States
  • Reps from north Italy (except Venetia) met in
    Turin in 1860 and held first parliament of the
    new and improved Italy
  • This was supported by English and French

The Completion of Italian Unity
  • 1860 Italy consists of three parts
  • Northern Piedmont
  • Papal States
  • Southern States (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies)
    ruled by Bourbon king in Naples
  • Under the House of Bourbon
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Piedmont
  • The Lafayette of Italy (Hero of 2 worlds)
  • Soldier of fortune in Uruguay and the United
  • Organized Garabaldis Thousand or Red Shirts
  • 1, 150 personal followers
  • Led them on armed expedition to southern Italy
  • Cavour closed his eyes to Garibaldis bold move
  • Garibaldi sailed south and attacked
  • The corrupt and unpopular governments (2
    Sicilies) collapse
  • Garibaldi turned north toward Rome
  • Potential move against the French in Rome and the
    Papacy threatened Cavours unification efforts

The Completion of Italian Unity
  • Cavour anticipated Garibaldis move and sent
    troops southward while carefully avoiding Rome
  • Garibaldi accepts Victor Emmanuels leadership
    and the north and south are joined with seceding
    Papal states
  • Garibaldi now thought a monarchy was best
    solution for unification
  • Rode in open carriage with Victor Emmanuel thru
    streets of Naples
  • Plebiscites confirmed willingness to join
  • 1861 Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed
  • 1866 Venetia was added in return for Italian
    support of Prussia against Austria
  • 1870 Rome was annexed after French troops
    withdrew during the Franco-Prussian War
  • Italy was made by apostolate of Mazzini, audacity
    of Garibaldi and cold policy of Cavour
  • The Heart, the Sword, and the Head

Persistent Problems After Unification
  • Claims for an expanded Italy continued
  • They want Trentino, Dalmatian islands, Nice,
    Savoy added
  • Italia Irredentism-An unredeemed Italy
  • Irredentism has come to mean a vociferous demand
    for territory on nationalistic grounds
  • Deep political differences between the Pope and
    the new nation of Italy continued
  • Occupation of Rome 1870 (after French left)
    renewed Popes condemnation
  • they took the Papal states and he remained in
    Vatican secluded
  • Great differences between northern and southern
    Italy continued to exist
  • North looks upon South as backward
  • Few within Italy possessed the vote
  • Only 600 thou out of 20 mil can vote
  • Disenfranchisement fueled revolutionary
  • Gradually the revolutionary movement shifted
  • Marxian socialism, Anarchism, Syndicalism
  • However Italy was united and an age old dream of
    recapturing past glory is closer to being realized