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SpeechLanguage Pathologists Role Perception in Teaching Literacy: Process and Content

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Title: SpeechLanguage Pathologists Role Perception in Teaching Literacy: Process and Content


1
Speech-Language Pathologists Role Perception in
Teaching Literacy Process and Content
Dr. Frank Kersting, Western Kentucky
University Casey Carr, Western Kentucky
University Jessica Kersting, MS, CCC/SLP
  • ASHA Convention Chicago, 2008

2
Literacy
  • Means an individual's ability to read, write, and
    speak in English, and to compute, and solve
    problems, at levels of proficiency necessary to
    function on the job, in the family of the
    individual, and in society.
  • law.justia.com/us/cfr/title20/20-3.0.2.1.37.0.16.3
    .html

3
ASHAs position statement on Literacy
  • Position Statement 13 Roles and
    Responsibilities of SLPs With Respect to Reading
    and Writing in Children and Adolescents
  • SLPs play a critical role in the development of
    literacy skills in children and adolescents.
  • Why do SLPs play a critical role?
  • Spoken and written language have been linked
    through four main areas
  • spoken language is foundational for reading and
    writing skills
  • each builds on the other to generate competence
    in both areas
  • children with spoken language difficulties often
    have difficulty with reading and vice versa
  • instruction in spoken language will impact
    written language and vice versa

4
ASHAs Position Statement on Literacy
  • Position Statement 13
  • The SLPs Role
  • Providing strategies for preventing difficulty in
    literacy acquisition
  • Identifying children at risk for reading and
    writing problems
  • Assessing written language
  • Providing intervention that targets literacy

5
Reading What is it?
  • Reading is a process or set of processes by which
    people generate and organize
    their memories related to topic, allow their
    thinking to be guided externally, assimilate
    new ideas, accommodate old ones, then reorganize.
  • Reading begins and ends with meaning
  • Reading is constructive
  • Reading is a selective behavior
  • The reader selects from text what appears to be
    important information
    and disregards
    what seems to be less important.
  • Perspective
  • Learning to read is not as naturally or
    biologically wired in as are speaking and
    listening
  • Reading must be directly taught to most children
    over several years of formal instruction
  • Moats, 2000

6
A perspective of Literacy for SLPs
  • Psycholinguistic Perspective
  • Goodman
  • Hypothesis or prediction about the meaning of
    what is to be read
  • Readers make initial use of their prior knowledge
    and language competence
  • Strategy order
  • semantic (predict meaning)
  • syntactic (generate anticipated language
    possibilities to structure anticipated meanings
    predict next word)
  • visual (combination with auditory) knowledge of
    letter-sound relationships

7
Reading Construct
  • Emerging Literacy
  • Examination of how children think about literacy
    and the strategies they use in attempting to
    comprehend and reproduce written language.
    Cassidy, The Reading Teacher, 1999
  • Literacy
  • Individual's ability to read, write, and speak in
    English

8
Reading is
  • Content
  • Text Comprehension
  • Process
  • Phonological Awareness the ability to auditorily
    distinguish units of speech such as phonemes and
    syllables.
  • Phonemic Awareness the ability to hear and
    manipulate sounds in words

9

Study
  • Survey area SLPs in schools to determine
  • their understanding of literacy
  • AND
  • literacy issues they address based on the
    content/process construct

10
Survey
  • The survey was administered to 30 school-based
    Speech-Language Pathologists in a 10-county area
    in South-Central Kentucky.
  • The Response rate was approximately 1/3

11
Results
  • SLPs are aware of ASHAs position on SLPs
    involvement with literacy and they feel they have
    the right to address emerging literacy
  • The SLP should be part of the assessment team in
    determining literacy ability
  • Believe that a preschool childs oral language
    ability is predictive of future literacy
    proficiency and therefore believe that emerging
    literacy goals should focus on both improving
    text comprehension AND phonological awareness
    abilities

12
Results
  • Many had training in graduate school and/or
    through continuing education regarding emerging
    literacy instruction
  • However, not all felt confident in providing
    literacy instruction to preschool children
  • Those that did feel confident believed that
    course content should include, but are not
    limited to
  • Basic rhymes
  • Letter-sound correspondence
  • Vocabulary
  • Phonological awareness
  • Storytelling
  • A link between oral and written language and
    basic comprehension of content

13
Conclusions
  • SLPs providing services in the school should
    address BOTH
  • Content
  • AND
  • Process skills
  • This is important because
  • The profession needs a consistent theoretic
    foundation specifying the skills and
    responsibilities for addressing those skills in
    providing services
  • The results provide preliminary data on the state
    of service delivery in providing
    language-literacy instruction to students needing
    such critical intervention for school success.

14
Recommendations
  • Increased collaboration with Literacy specialists
    for students enrolled in therapy
  • Increased attention to in-services designed at
    promoting collaboration amongst faculty and
    specialists
  • For SLPs
  • More in-depth training in literacy in all its
    rich dimensions

15
Conclusion
  • Literacy IS in the SLPs Scope of Practice as
    defined by ASHA.

16
Resources
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
    (2001). Roles and Responsibilities of
    Speech-Language Pathologists With Respect to
    Reading and Writing in Children and Adolescents
    Position Statement. Available from
    www.asha.org/policy.
  • Crowe, L. (2003). Comparison of Two Reading
    Feedback Strategies in Improving the Oral and
    Written Language Performance of Children With
    Language-Learning Disabilities. American Journal
    of Speech- Language Pathology, 12, 16-27.
  • Culatta, B., Kovarsky, D., Theadore, G.,
    Franklin, A., Timler, G. (2003.) Quantitative
    and Qualitative Documentation of Early Literacy
    Instruction. American Journal of
    Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 172-188.
  • Ezell, H.K. Justice, L.M. (2000). Increasing
    the Print Focus of Adult-Child Shared Book
    Reading Through Observational Learning. American
    Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9, 36-47.
  • Ezell, H.K. Justice, L.M. (2004). Print
    Referencing An Emergent Literacy Enhancement
    Strategy and its Clinical Applications.
    Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in
    Schools, 35, 185-193.

17
  • Justice, L.M., Chow, S., Capellini, C., Flanigan,
    K., Colton, S. (2003). Emergent Literacy
    Intervention for Vulnerable Preschoolers
    Relative Effects of Two Approaches. American
    Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 12,
    320-332.
  • Justice, L.M. Ezell, H.K. (2002) Use of
    Storybook Reading to Increase Print Awareness in
    At-Risk Children. American Journal of
    Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 17-29.
  • Lovelace, S. Steward, S. R. (2007). Increasing
    Print Awareness in Preschoolers With Language
    Impairment Using Non-Evocative Print
    Referencing. Language, Speech, and Hearing
    Services in Schools, 38, 16-30.
  • Moats, L. (2000). Speech to print. Paul H.
    Brookes Publishing, 3
  • Shaughnessy, A., Sanger, D., Matteucci, C.,
    Ritzman, M. (2004). Early childhood language
    and literacy Survey explores kindergarten
    teachers perceptions. The ASHA Leader, pp. 2,
    18.
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