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Environmental Health and Safety Food Safety


7) Failure to properly heat or cook food ... Pork roasts/chops; ground beef; and eggs prepared in bulk: 155 oF for 15 seconds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Health and Safety Food Safety

Environmental Health and SafetyFood Safety
Cal Poly San Luis Obispo
Importance of Food Safety
  • Keeping your Event Safe

Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
  • Clean - free of visible soil
  • Sanitize - reduce the number of microorganisms to
    a safe level using heat or chemicals
  •  Sterilize - to make free of microorganisms
  • In food service we do not sterilize food
    contact surfaces.
  •  Contamination - the presence of harmful
    substance in food

Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
  • Spoilage. Damage to the edible quality of a
    food. Meat that is unsafe to eat will not always
    smell or taste spoiled.
  • Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHFs). Foods that
    allow the rapid growth of bacteria. There are
    several physical and environmental
    characteristics that will make a food potentially
    hazardous. We will discuss these characteristics
    later in this lesson.

Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
  • The Temperature Danger Zone. Temperature range
    where bacteria can grow and reproduce rapidly
    (between 41 and 135 degrees F, or between 4 and
    57 degrees C.) Potentially hazardous foods
    should be kept at temperatures below 41 oF or
    above 135 oF.
  • Food borne Illness. Illness transmitted to
    humans due to the ingestion of food that contains
    harmful pathogens or their byproducts (toxins).

Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
  • Food borne Illness Outbreaks (FBIOs).
    Generally, we think of a food borne illness
    outbreak as involving 20, 50, or even hundreds of
    individuals. In reality, an outbreak is defined
    as the laboratory confirmed incidence of clinical
    illness involving two or more people that ate a
    common food

Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
  • Cross-contamination - the transfer of a harmful
    substance from one food to another by direct or
    indirect contact
  • Direct cross-contamination involves the transfer
    of a harmful agent from raw foods to cooked or
    ready-to-eat foods
  • example of direct contact blood from thawing
    ground beef dripping onto fresh produce stored on
    a shelf below
  • Indirect cross-contamination involves the
    transfer of a harmful agent to foods by hands,
    utensils, or equipment.
  • example of indirect contact raw chicken
    prepared with a knife and cutting board and knife
    and cutting board are not cleaned and sanitized
    after use

Factors That Contribute to Food borne Disease
  • Eight leading causes of Food borne Illness
    identified by CDC were
  •  1) Cross-contamination between raw and cooked
    and/or ready-to-eat foods. It generally results
    from poor personal hygiene (workers hands), or
    from using unsanitized equipment
  •  2) Inadequate re-heating of potentially
    hazardous foods. All leftovers intended to be
    served hot must be re-heated to 165 oF within a
    2-hour period

Factors That Contribute to Food borne Disease
  •  3) Foods left in the temperature danger zone
    (TDZ) too long. Time in the TDZ is cumulative.
    After 4 hours the potentially hazardous foods
    must be discarded
  •  4) Raw, contaminated ingredients used without
    further cooking. Examples of this are sliced
    melons, salad vegetables, and raw eggs used in
    sauces and salad dressings

Factors That Contribute to Food borne Disease
  • 7) Failure to properly heat or cook food
  •  8)   Failure to properly cool food is the number
    one cause of FBIOs in the United States. Poor
    cooling practices result in potentially hazardous
    foods being held in the TDZ for long periods of

Recognizing the Threat
  • There are three categories of hazards that are
    responsible for causing food borne illnesses
    and/or injuries
  •  Biological
  • Chemical
  • Physical 

Recognizing the Threat
  • 1) Biological Hazards.
  • Of the three categories, biological hazards
    present the most significant threat, accounting
    for at least two thirds of food borne illnesses.
  • Biological hazards include certain bacteria,
    viruses, parasites, and fungi. Certain plants,
    mushrooms, and fish carry harmful toxins.
    Intoxications are harmful toxins in contaminated
    foods. Infections are pathogens that grow in the

Recognizing the Threat
  • 2) Chemical Hazards.
  • intoxication due to chemical contamination of
  • residues on food or food contact surfaces
  • pesticides and metal residues
  • cleaning compounds
  • Metal residues
  • can produce toxic effect in minute quantities
  • galvanized containers w/ acidic foods causes zinc
    to leach out
  • Lead-based flatware and crystal can present
    similar problems
  • Residues from detergents, cleaning solutions, or
    concentrated sanitizers

Recognizing the Threat
  • Physical Hazards
  • involve injuries caused by chewing or ingesting
    foreign objects in food
  • not as significant as biological hazards because
    threat impacts fewer people
  • Examples metal shavings packing staples, tacks,
    and pins, glass, hair, fingernails, wood, stones,

Layers of Protection
  • prevent food borne illness by enforcing Layers
    of Protection.
  • leading causes of food borne illness come from
    violations in the food safety layers of
    protection associated with the following
  • (1) Personal hygiene and work habits
  • (2) Time and temperature discipline
  • (3) Proper cleaning and sanitizing

Personal Hygiene and Identifying Unhealthy
  • Supervisors
  • must identify unsanitary and unhealthy personnel
  • Observation is an effective means of identifying
    health risks
  • look for cuts/burns on fingers, hands, and arms
    oozing sores, pimples, or boils and significant
    coughing or sneezing
  • Workers not allowed around food if they are
    experiencing fever, vomiting, or diarrhea 

Uniform Standards
  • Hair restraints, such as a hat or hair net must
    be utilized by all food handlers
  • Workers with no hair must wear a hat to catch
  • Personnel with beard must wear a beard restraint

  • The only jewelry to be worn by food handlers is a
    plain, smooth wedding band
  • Workers not actively engaged in food preparation
    may wear a watch

Hand washing
  • most common source of contamination leading to
    illness is the fecal-oral-route
  • contaminated after using the restroom
  • bacteria and viral contamination transferred via
    contaminated food or utensils
  • single use gloves must be used when handling
    ready-to-eat foods
  • hands must be washed between glove changes
  • must wash hands after a break, smoking, using
    restroom, applying make-up, between food handling
    tasks, before donning gloves, between glove

Hand washing Standards
  • designated sink in the food preparation area for
    hand washing or public restroom within 200 feet
  • Pot/pan sink and janitors sink not authorized
    for hand washing
  • Hot and cold running water
  • hot water must have a minimum temperature of 110
  • Liquid soap is preferred
  • trash receptacle must be present
  • Only disposable paper towels or air dryer are
    authorized for drying hands

Time Temperature Discipline
  • second layer of protection
  • time and temperature controls throughout the flow
    of food
  • must assume all potentially hazardous foods are
  • Thermometers. A bi-metallic, stem-type
    thermometer should be used to measure the
    internal temperature of food

  • Potentially hazardous foods held in cold storage
    must have an internal product temperature of 41
    oF (4.0C) or less to significantly retard or
    reduce bacterial growth.
  • Frozen potentially hazardous foods must be
    tempered using a process that will either keep
    the internal product temperature from exceeding
    41 oF or will ultimately raise the temperature to
    adequately kill existing pathogens.

Factors That Contribute to Food borne Disease
  • 5) Foods prepared too far in advance. This is
    generally coupled with holding food in the TDZ
    too long
  •  6) Infected food handlers and poor work habits
    both contribute to food borne disease.

  • only three approved methods  
  • (1) In a refrigeration unit set at an ambient
    temperature of 38 oF.
  • most preferred method and requires proper menu
  • (2) Thawing as part of the conventional cooking
    process generally involves products that need
    little or no preparation
  • thaw as they cook
  • items thawed in a microwave must be immediately
    transferred to a conventional cooking process no
    time delay between steps 

  • (3) least preferred method is placing the item
    under potable running water that is set at 70 oF
    or less. requirements when used
  •  PHF should be kept in its original wrapper if
  • placed in a pan or pot, which is then placed into
    the sink
  •  water at a pressure strong enough to agitate
    loose particles 
  • constant turnover of water during this process 
  • Regardless of method caution should be taken to
    avoid cross contamination and minimize time in
    the TDZ

Preparation Cooking
  • Time and temperature controls are critical
  • most likely stage that bacteria will have an
    opportunity to grow or survive
  • Time in the danger zone is cumulative from the
    time of receipt to the time of serving
  • California Uniform Retail Food Facilities Law
    allows a maximum of 4 hours in the TDZ before it
    must be discarded

Preparation Cooking Temp Requirements
  • All products containing poultry stuffed foods,
    such as stuffed noodle shells and bell peppers
    and all leftovers to be eaten hot 165 oF for a
    minimum of 15 seconds
  • Pork roasts/chops ground beef and eggs prepared
    in bulk 155 oF for 15 seconds
  • Whole muscle meats (beef and lamb) fish and
    seafood and made-to-order eggs 145 oF for 15
  • Roasts require 145 degrees for 3 minutes due to
    the thickness of the muscle

Holding Serving
  • spot check the internal temperature of PHFs in
    holding (hot and cold) with thermometers every 30
  • hot holding or serving line items that fall below
    135 oF should be re-heated to 165 oF or discarded
    if 4 hours in the TDZ has occurred
  • Items that have been re-heated to 165 oF are
    considered leftovers and cannot be retained for
    an additional 24 hours

  • Any unserved food remaining at the end of a meal
  • must be labeled with item name, date/time
  • only items that were held at safe temperatures,
    protected from contamination, and handled by food
    service workers may be retained as leftovers
  • may be retained for up to 24 hours if cooled
    properly and held at 41 oF or below
  • Hot leftovers may be retained for up to 5 hours
    if held at 135 oF or above

  • Rapid cooling
  • reduce bulk products and increase the surface
    area of a product
  • Use 2-inch shallow pans, ice baths, slicing,
    stirring, blast chillers, or a combination
  • hot items must be cooled from temperatures that
    are above 135 oF to 70 oF in 2 hours, then from
    70 oF to 41 oF or below within 4 hours

Cleaning Sanitizing
  • All non-food contact surfaces must be cleaned
    after each meal
  • Food contact surfaces, (food service equipment
    and utensils) must be properly cleaned and
  • Sponges, steel wool, wooden handled brushes, and
    common dishtowels are PROHIBITED
  • Reusable wiping cloths may be used only if stored
    in sanitizing solution
  • Paper towels are preferred

Sanitizing In-Place Equipment and Food Contact
  • Sanitizers must be used at the proper
    concentration to effectively kill pathogenic
  • Spot-check water temperature and pH
  • Equipment and utensils cleaned and sanitized
    allowed to air dry

Clean Wash Hands and Surfaces Often
  • Bacteria can spread throughout the kitchen and
    get on to cutting boards, knives, sponges and
    counter tops.
  • prevent food contamination from outside sources
  • Wash hands in hot soapy water before preparing
    food and after using the bathroom

Clean Wash Hands and Surfaces Often
  • Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter
    tops in hot soapy water after each food item
  • Use plastic or other non-porous cutting boards
  • Cutting boards should be run through the
    dishwasher or washed in hot soapy water
  • Consider using paper towels to clean up kitchen
  • If using cloth towels - wash them often in hot
    water sanitizer

Separate Dont Cross-Contaminate
  • Principles to preventing cross contamination
  • Keep raw meat, poultry and seafood separate from
    each other and other food
  • Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom
  • Use one cutting board for raw meat products and
    another for salads and other foods that are ready
    to be eaten
  • Wash cutting boards and utensils with hot soapy
    water after contact with raw meat, poultry and
  • Never place cooked food on a plate that
    previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood

Cook to Proper Temperatures
  • Use a meat thermometer to verify thorough
  • Cook roasts and steaks to at least 145F. Whole
    poultry, cook to 180F for doneness
  • Cook ground meat to at least 160F (center of
  • Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm, not
  • Cook fish until it is opaque and flakes easily
  • Make sure there are no cold spots in food
  • Heat other leftovers thoroughly to 165F

Food Sources
  • Food prepared in a private home may NOT be used
    or offered for human consumption at a public or
    private event on campus.
  • Complimentary food items may be provided by
    campus employees for sharing with coworkers in
    their department or office. Each employee is
    responsible for the wholesomeness of the food
    items he/she provides.

Food Sources
  • All food must be purchased or provided through
    Campus Dining / Campus Catering. Any food
    donations from outside sources must be approved
    and coordinated by Campus Catering.
  • Pre-Packaged foods must retain their original

  • Refrigerated potentially hazardous foods shall be
    at a temperature of 41F (4.0C) or below when
  • Exception if a temperature other than 41 F (4.0
    C) is specified in law (milk, molluscan
    shellfish, and shell eggs),these foods shall be
    cooled to 41 F (4.0 C) within 4 hours of
  • cooked foods must be received at 135 F (57 C)
    or above
  • food shipped frozen shall be received frozen
  • free of evidence of temperature abuse

  • Food handlers must properly wash their hands
    whenever there may have been a chance they may
    have become contaminated in any way
  • Except when washing fruits and vegetables food
    handlers may not contact food with their bare
    hands and must use suitable utensils (such as
    deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves,
    or dispensing equipment)

  • A food handler may not use a utensil more than
    once to taste food
  • A two- utensil method for recipe tasting is
  • use one utensil to remove the food from the
    container and to place the food in a clean,
    sanitary bowl or plate. Use a second utensil to
    taste the food
  • discard any unused portion of food that was
    removed, and clean and sanitize the utensil and
    bowl or plate 

  • Ice may not be used as food after use as a medium
    for cooling the exterior surfaces of food,
    packaged foods, or cooling coils and tubes of
  • Packaged food may not be stored in direct contact
    with ice or water if subject to the entry of
  • Generally, unpackaged food may not be stored in
    direct contact with undrained ice
  • Whole, raw fruits or vegetables cut, raw
    vegetables (such as celery or carrot sticks or
    cut potatoes) and tofu may be immersed in ice or

  • Raw chicken and raw fish that are received
    immersed in ice in shipping containers may remain
    in that condition while in storage awaiting
    preparation, display, service, or sale
  • Ice intended as food (in drinks) shall be
    dispensed from self-service, automatic ice
    dispensing machines or placed in cleaned and
    sanitized self-draining container
  • Use clean and sanitized scoops, tongs, or other
    ice-dispensing utensils
  • Glassware is prohibited for scooping ice

Equipment Utensils
  • Food may not contact surfaces of equipment and
    utensils that are not cleaned and sanitized
  • pauses in food preparation or dispensing
  • Store food preparation and dispensing utensils in
    the food with handles above the top of the food
    and container
  • in non-potentially hazardous food, store utensils
    with handles above the top of the food within
    containers or equipment that can be closed, such
    as bins of sugar, flour, or cinnamon
  • may also store on a clean portion of the food
    preparation table or cooking equipment,
  • shall be cleaned and sanitized frequently during

  • single-use gloves shall
  • be used for only one task such as working with
    ready-to-eat food or with raw animal food
  • used for no other purpose
  • discarded when damaged or soiled or when
    interruptions occur in the operation

Food Storage
  • Food must be protected from contamination by
    storing the food in a clean, dry location where
    it is not exposed to splash, dust, or other
  • All food must be stored at least 6 inches above
    the floor
  • Food to be sold or given away to the public may
    NOT be stored at home.

Condiment Protection
  • Protected from contamination by being kept in
  • original containers designed for dispensing
    (squeeze bottles)
  • individual packages or portions.
  • Use of relish bowls and other similar
    non-self-closing condiment containers is

Consumer Self-Service Operations
  • Raw, unpackaged food may not be offered for
    consumer self-service
  • does not apply to consumer self-service of
    ready-to-eat foods at buffets or salad bars
  • shall be provided with suitable utensils
  • employees shall monitor self-service operations

Cooking Raw Foods
  • Raw foods of animal source shall be cooked to
    heat all parts to minimum requirements for
    temperature and time
  • 145 F (63 C) or above for 15 sec used for
  • Raw shell eggs for immediate service
  • Fish seafood
  • Beef, veal, lamb, mutton
  • Select commercially raised game animals

Cooking Raw Foods
  • 155 F (68 C) for 15 seconds or the temperature
    specified for
  • Pork and certain exotic game animals
  • Bone-in fish/meats/game animals, injected meats,
    eggs not for immediate service
  • Ground Beef
  • 165 F (74 C) or above for 15 sec for
  • Poultry certain wild game animals
  • Stuffed fish/meat/pasta or stuffing w/
  • Stuffing/dressing cooked separately

Cooking Raw Foods
  • Fruits and vegetables cooked for hot holding
    shall be cooked to 135 F  

Microwave Cooking
  • Raw animal source foods cooked in a microwave
    shall be rotated/stirred during cooking to
    compensate for uneven distribution of heat
  • must also be covered to retain surface moisture
  • all raw animal source foods cooked exclusively in
    a microwave shall be heated to a temperature of
    165 F (74 C) in all parts of the food
  • Upon completion, will be allowed to stand covered
    for 2 minutes after cooking to obtain temperature

Reheating for Hot Holding
  • PHFs cooked, cooled, and reheated for hot
    holding shall be reheated to 165F for 15
  • PHFs reheated in a microwave oven for hot
    holding shall be reheated so that all parts of
    the food reach a temperature of at least 165 F
    (74 C) and the food shall be rotated or stirred,
    covered, and allowed to stand covered for 2
    minutes after reheating
  • Ready to eat food taken from commercially
    processed, hermetically sealed container heat to
    135F for hot holding

Reheating for Hot Holding
  • Reheating for hot holding shall be done rapidly,
    and the time the food is between the temperatures
    of 41F and 165F may not exceed 2 hours
  • Remaining unsliced roast beef properly cooked may
    be reheated for hot holding if oven parameters
    are met

PHF Hot Cold Holding or Display
  • Sufficient holding facilities shall be available
    to assure the maintenance of PHFs at required
    temperature during hot or cold holding
  • Except during preparation, cooking, cooling, or
    when time is used as the public health control,
    all potentially hazardous foods shall be
    maintained at 135F or above, or at 41F or below

Time as a Public Health Control
  • Time only, rather than time in conjunction with
  • requirements
  • a. Food shall be identified to indicate the time
    4 hours from removal from temperature control
  • b. food shall be cooked and served within 4
    hours from the point in time when the food is
    removed from temperature control
  • c. food in unmarked containers or packages or
    exceed a 4-hour limit shall be discarded
  • d. Written procedures ensuring compliance
    available to the regulatory authority upon

Hands Exposed Arms
  • Food Employees shall vigorously wash hands and
    exposed portions of arms with soap and warm
    water for at least 20 seconds followed by a
    thorough rinsing with clean water at designated
    hand washing facility
  • Employees should wash before engaging in food
    preparation, after touching bare human body parts
    other than clean hands and clean, exposed
    portions of arms and always after using the

Hands Exposed Arms
  • wash hands
  • after coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief or
  • using tobacco, eating, or drinking, after
    handling soiled equipment or utensils, during
    food preparation, to remove soil and
    contamination and to prevent cross contamination
    when changing tasks
  • when switching between working with raw food and
    working with ready-to-eat food, or after engaging
    in other activities that contaminate the hands

Hands Exposed Arms
  • Food employees shall wash hands in hand washing
  • May not clean their hands in a sink used for food
    preparation or in a service sink or a curbed
    cleaning facility used for the disposal of mop
    water and similar liquid waste
  • A hand sanitizer and a chemical hand sanitizing
    solution used as a hand dip shall contain active
    antimicrobial ingredients
  • Sanitizer shall be applied only to hands that are
    thoroughly cleaned

Hands Exposed Arms
  • With the exception of a plain ring, such as a
    wedding band, or medical bracelet, employees may
    not wear jewelry when preparing or serving food
  • Prohibited jewelry includes nose, tongue, and lip
    rings other exposed body jewelry and watches
  • Employees who handle only closed food containers
    or prepackaged food are exempt
  • Food employees shall also wear clean outer

  • Food handlers may eat, drink, or use any form of
    tobacco only in designated areas where the
    contamination of exposed food, clean equipment,
    utensils, linens, unwrapped single-service and
    single-use articles, or other items needing
    protection cannot result. A food handler may
    drink from a closed beverage container with a
    protected drinking mechanism (sports bottle) if
    the container is handled in a manner that
    prevents contamination of the workers hands and
    exposed food or contact surfaces.

  • Food handlers experiencing persistent sneezing,
    coughing, or a runny nose that causes discharges
    from the eyes, nose, or mouth may not work with
    exposed food clean equipment, utensils, and
    linens or unwrapped single-service or single-use

Food Safety Quiz
  • All events on campus at which food is sold or
    given away to the public must have at least one
    person on-site during the event who has
    completed this training course and the following
    Food Safety Quiz
  • Click here for quiz. Fax completed quiz to
    Environmental Health Safety at 756-1602
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