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Music%20Basics

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In tonal music, some harmonies can follow other harmonics but not others ... Music consists of phrases usually as long as a human breath (based on past on singing) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Music%20Basics


1
Music Basics
2
Music notation the staff
3
Music notation clefs
4
Music notation
5
Script letter G
6
Music notation
7
Middle C in G clef
8
Middle C in other clefs
9
Notes in the Grand Staff
10
Pitches
  • Refers to pitch only as in cycles per second
  • 440Hz equals A above middle C
  • 220Hz equals A below middle C

11
Overtone Series
  • All pitches except sine waves have these
  • Different emphasis on different overtones produce
    different timbres
  • Partials begin on 1, overtones begin on 0

12
Notes
  • Refers to pitch, duration, loudness, etc.
  • Notes equate to cope-events
  • Pitch is the second element of a cope-event

13
Duration
14
Durations
15
Relationships
16
Rests
17
Meter
18
Tempo
  • Fast (q 120) - Allegro
  • Moderate (q 90) - Moderato
  • Slow (q 60) - Adagio

19
Dynamics
20
Articulations
21
Notes sounding alone
  • One after another is called monody
  • Or monophony
  • Or melody
  • Or musical line

22
Tonality
  • Tonality usually means notes sounding primarily
    according to a given scale
  • Major scales consist of stepwise intervals
  • Major scale M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 M2 m2
  • Natural minor scale M2 m2 M2 M2 m2 M2 M2
  • Notes not in scale called chromatic

23
Key
  • Keys are defined by scales and can be centered
    around any one of 12 starting notes
  • To create the proper intervallic content some
    keys must have sharped and flatted notes
  • Key signatures make these easier to read

24
Motives
  • Motives are groups of 3 to 7 notes that have some
    distinctive property (pitch, rhythm, etc.)
  • Motives are varied in many ways (transposition,
    inversion, extrapolation, etc.)
  • Motives help identify longer melodic lines

25
Notes sounding together
  • Are called harmony if they move together
  • Are called polyphony or counterpoint if moving
    offset
  • Fugues and canons are examples of polyphony

26
Harmony
  • Harmony has function (syntax and semantics)
  • Harmonic syntax means what can follow what
  • Harmonic semantics means what constitutes the
    harmony itself

27
Harmonic syntax and semantics
  • In tonal music, some harmonies can follow other
    harmonics but not others
  • We use Roman numerals in indicate semantics as in
    a major scale
  • I, IV, and V indicate Tonic, Subdominant, and
    Dominant harmonic called primary functions
  • ii (supertonic), iii (mediant), vi (submediant),
    and vii (leading-tone), called secondary functions

28
Harmonic syntax
  • I can be followed by anything
  • V is best followed by I (authentic) or vi
    (deceptive) but never IV
  • IV can be followed by V (mostly) and I
  • ii belongs to the IV family, iii the I family,
    vi the I family, and vii the V family
    interchangeably.

29
Harmonic syntax
  • I means home base
  • IV means moving toward V (pre-dominant)
  • V means needs to go home

30
Phrases
  • Music consists of phrases usually as long as a
    human breath (based on past on singing)
  • Phrases end in cadences
  • Cadences usually end in I (authentic), V, (half),
    or V-vi (deceptive)
  • Phrases usually come in pairs in tonal music as
    in (cadences V and then I - question/answer.

31
Modulation
  • Modulation means to subtly change keys for
    variety
  • Best key changes mean to move from a key 1 sharp
    or 1 flat more of less in key signature.

32
Periods
  • Phrases group into periods consisting usually of
    two matching Q and A phrases
  • Periods can repeat, repeat with variation, or
    contrast

33
Sections
  • Sections consist of two or more periods
  • Sections can consist of contrasting or similar
    periods

34
Form
  • Form delineates the material of a work or
    movement of music
  • Form is usually described by u.c. letters in
    alphabetical order
  • ABA form (called ternary) indicates one musical
    idea (section A) followed by a contrasting
    musical idea (section B) followed by a return of
    section A

35
Structure
  • Structure is NOT form
  • Structure indicates relative importance of
    musical material (hierarchy)
  • Structure deletes less important musica material
    in order to highlight the important musical
    material

36
Example
37
MIDI
  • Musical Instrument Digital Interface
  • Watch it MIDI interface is redundant
  • Does not create sound
  • Like a musical score
  • Channels tell sequencers (Finale, Sibelius, etc.)
    when to turn on a channel, turn off a channel,
    etc.
  • Set the instrument in any channel you want

38
MIDI and Music Notation
  • Ontime 0 Duration500 an eighth-note in music
    notation
  • Ontime 845 Duration260 gibberish in music
    notation
  • Result keep your cope-events in logical ontimes
    and logical durations
  • Triplets, etc. 333, 333, 334 durations, etc.
  • If you want good notation-be careful!!!

39
MIDI types
  • Performed MIDI files
  • Must quantize to a given duration that often
    alters the music severely
  • Non-performed MIDI files
  • Works best for analyzing music

40
Remember
  • Music notation is an algorithm
  • Music notation is an algorithm created by other
    people
  • Music notation is an algorithm created by other
    people that severely limits expression
  • Ledger lines, rhythm, pitch, etc.
  • MIDI need not have such limitations
  • Only if you wish to see your music represented

41
Great music is music that
  • Sells the most?
  • Performed the most?
  • Listened to the most?
  • Talked about the most?
  • Differing arrangements the most?
  • Quoted the most?
  • Lasts the longest?

42
If so
  • The best restaurant would be Burger King
  • The best film would be Titanic
  • The best author would be Stephen King
  • The best hotel would Best Western
  • The best music would be the Star Spangled Banner

43
Then what is it?
  • Best music that does the most with the least
  • Worst music that does the least with the most
  • Or
  • Best music that gets better the more you listen
    to it
  • Worst music that you listen to once.

44
Best music is like an onion
  • Keep peeling off the layers and continue to
    discover something new.

45
Personal taste
  • There is no such thing as good music.
  • There is no such thing as bad music.
  • There is only music you like or dont like.

46
George Lewis (1952-)
  • improvises via trombone with his Voyager hardware
    and software
  • a portable computer, 'listens' via a microphone
    to Lewis' trombone improvisations
  • quickly generates musical responses that make
    appropriate melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic sense

47
Andrei Andreyevich Markov 1856 - 1922
48
Markov Chains
49
Probability
  • Typically measured between 0.0 and 1.0
  • For events following another event must total 1.0
  • Important in statistics
  • Be careful in establishing (e.g., the probability
    of heads up on a tossed coin is forever 0.5 no
    matter how many times the coin is tossed).

50
Zero order Markov Chain Pseudo-random choices.
51
First order Markov Chain indicates that the
current event will effect the choice of the
following event.
52
(No Transcript)
53
Second order Markov chain Two successive events
will influence the next event
54
(No Transcript)
55
Random Walk
56
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57
Example for Markov
58
Markov Chains
  • Are a type of grammar (syntax)
  • Many types of grammars (e.g., finite state,
    recursive, augmented transition, etc.)
  • These are typically linear
  • Robust grammars require hierarchy
  • Hierarchy is non-linear

59
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)
  • Markov works for representations (x) for actual
    states (x) only as in

60
Write code that will analyze first-order Markov
info for monophonic music.
61
Define Lisp functions that will transpose
events any distance up or down.
62
a predicate determining whether or not its arg is
a cope-event or not.
63
changes the tempo of an eventlist.
64
plays an eventlist backwards.
65
delays the beginning of an eventlist by any
amount.
66
makes canons from an eventlist.
67
Assignment Create Markov code to analyze
data representing pitches
68
Send code to me via e-mail before next Thursday
69
Make sure the code works is well documented top
down makes sense
70
Your midi files play them and discuss
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