Case Study 8 Food and Water Security - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Case Study 8 Food and Water Security PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1b44e-MTg0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Case Study 8 Food and Water Security

Description:

Los Angeles, Phoenix and Las Vegas. Fast growing region: Las Vegas is the fastest growing city ... Los Angeles and. Phoenix. Usage by the Imperial. Valley ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:265
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 32
Provided by: DrJeanPau
Category:
Tags: case | food | los | security | study | vegas | water

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Case Study 8 Food and Water Security


1
Case Study 8 Food and Water Security
  • 1 Food Security and Food Aid
  • 2 Water Security

2
Food Security and Food Aid
1
  • Definition (food security)
  • State of affairs where all people at all times
    have access to safe and nutritious food to
    maintain a healthy and active life.
  • Must be on the one hand a provision of safe,
    nutritious, and quantitatively and qualitatively
    adequate food (70 days).
  • Rich and poor, male and female, old and young
    must have access to it.
  • Dimensions
  • Availability of sufficient quantities of food of
    appropriate quality, supplied through domestic
    production or imports.
  • Access by households and individuals to
    appropriate foods for a nutritious diet.
  • Optimal uptake of nourishment with a sustaining
    diet, clean water and adequate sanitation,
    together with health care.

3
Global Production of Major Grains, 1950-2002 (in
M tons)
3
4
World Grain Carryover Stocks (Days of Consumption)
1
5
Amount of Grain Used for Feed, USA and China,
1960-1997 (in millions of metric tons)
4
6
Changes in the number of undernourished, 1990-92
to 1997-99
2
7
Food Insecurity in the World
1
Critical situation
Malnourished population
Sufficiently feed population
Well feed population
8
Coffee and Cocoa Production by Developing
Countries and Imports by Developed Countries,
1961-2001 (in tons)
2
9
Food Security and Food Aid
1
  • Food Insecurity
  • The figures vary from different sources.
  • 842 million people in the developing world are
    malnourished (1999-2001).
  • 10 million people in industrialized countries.
  • 4.2 million in the United States.
  • Groups at risk
  • Victims of conflicts.
  • Migrant workers and their families.
  • Marginal populations in urban areas.
  • Low income households.
  • Dependent people.
  • Elderly.
  • Pregnant women.
  • Young children.

10
Number of Malnourished in the Developing World,
1970-2015 (in millions)
1
11
Number of Malnourished by Region, 1995/97 (in
millions)
1
12
of the Population Malnourished, 1990-92
1
13
of the Population Malnourished in Selected
Countries, 1995-97
1
14
Consumption of Coca-Cola Products, 1995 (in
liters per person)
1
15
Estimated Number of Restaurants Worldwide of the
Top 10 U.S. Fast-Food Chains with International
Operations (1952-1998)
1
16
Food Security and Food Aid
1
  • Food Aid
  • Several regions have chronic food shortages.
  • Several governmental and non-governmental
    agencies are organizing food aid programs.
  • The goal is to supply a temporary aid to the
    population in need.
  • This aid has generally negative impacts such as
    the destruction of local agricultural systems.
  • Like poverty, there exist a vicious circle of
    food aid favouring the persistence of problems in
    several nations.

17
Grain Food Aid, Total and by Region, 1970-95
1
18
Vicious Circle of Food Aid
1
Famine
19
Food Aid Received from External Sources, 1992-94
(kg per capita of cereal)
1
20
Water Security
2
  • Context
  • Worldwide, more than 1 billion people lack access
    to safe drinking water.
  • 80 percent of the earths urban residents may not
    have adequate potable-water supplies.
  • Around 0.008 of fresh water is currently
    available.
  • Water-stressed countries
  • Population have surpassed the levels that can be
    sustained with available water.
  • Range of 1,000 - 2,000 cubic meters of water
    supply annually per person.
  • 1000 cubic meters per year is equivalent to about
    725 gallons per day per capita.

21
Water Security
2
  • Water-scarce countries
  • Fall below the 1000 cubic meters range.
  • In 1992, 26 countries already were in this
    category, with about eight more expected to be
    included by 2010.
  • Most of these countries are in Africa or the
    Middle East (11).
  • Geopolitics
  • Issue of water not well covered by international
    law.
  • How much water a country upstream must guarantee
    to country(ies) downstream?
  • What quality this water should be? (pesticides,
    salinity, etc.)
  • Water resources are likely to be the object of
    geopolitical conflicts in the future.
  • Become a scarcer resource in some parts of the
    world.

22
Grain Production in Saudi Arabia, in M tons
3
23
Grain Area in Kazakhstan, in M hectares
3
24
Water Development Projects
2
  • The Aral Sea
  • The greatest environmental catastrophe ever
    recorded.
  • Once the fourth largest lake in the world, the
    Aral Sea began shrinking in the 1960s.
  • The Soviet Union diverted the waters from two of
    its feeders to irrigate the cotton crops of
    Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
  • During the 1980s, several years passed in which
    little or no water reached the Aral Sea.
  • The lake began to quickly evaporate and shrink.
  • Eventually splitting into two sections.
  • Today the inland sea covers about half of its
    former area and its water volume has decreased by
    about 75 percent.

25
Water Development Projects
2
  • The salinity of the lakes waters has tripled,
    killing plant and animal life.
  • As it recedes, the lake leaves behind a harmful
    layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts.
  • Blows into noxious dust storms, seriously
    affecting the health of the people who live in
    the area.
  • Cancer and respiratory diseases have increased,
    as have infant mortality rates.
  • The fishing industry, which once employed
    thousands of people, has been destroyed.
  • The climate has even been affected.
  • Summer and winter temperatures have become more
    extreme.

26
River Flow Into the Aral Sea, 1940-90 (in
billions of cubic meters)
2
27
Aral Sea, 1973 and 1987 (Landsat Images)
2
28
Stress on Major River Basins
2
29
Water Use
3
  • Colorado River
  • Covers 7 states.
  • Service a population of 25 million.
  • No longer a river a series of lakes.
  • Competition between urban and agricultural use.
  • Competition between cities
  • Los Angeles, Phoenix and Las Vegas.
  • Fast growing region
  • Las Vegas is the fastest growing city of the
    United States.
  • All the water is used before it reaches the Gulf
    of California
  • 1993 was the last time water flowed in the Gulf.

30
Water Profile of the Colorado River
3
31
Flow of Colorado River Below All Major Dams and
Diversions, 1905-92 (in millions of cubic meters)
3
About PowerShow.com