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Church and University

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To what extent was the medieval church the inhibitor of creativity? ... LDS religion. Religious Life at the Millennium. 1000 AD. Coming of Christ or Satan? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Church and University


1
Church and University
2
Creativity and Churches
  • To what extent was the medieval church the
    promoter of creativity?
  • To what extent was the medieval church the
    inhibitor of creativity?
  • What basic characteristics of any religion
    promote or inhibit creativity?
  • Egyptian religion
  • Jewish religion
  • LDS religion

3
Religious Life at the Millennium
  • 1000 AD
  • Coming of Christ or Satan?
  • And I saw an angel come down from heaven have
    the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain
    in his hand. And he laid hold on the
    dragonwhich is the Deviland bound him a
    thousand yearsand after that he must be loosed a
    little season. Rev.20 1-3
  • Christians reassessed personal life and goals

4
Personal Reform and Pilgrimages
  • Pilgrimages
  • People wanted to be more righteous
  • World safer for travel
  • Purpose
  • Draw close to God
  • Fulfill a promise or obligation
  • Share in grace
  • Obtain a cure
  • Adventure
  • Identified and protected by clothes

5
The Church1000 - 1300 AD
  • Pilgrimages
  • Major pilgrimage locations
  • Santiago de Compostela
  • Canterbury
  • Jerusalem
  • Location of miraculous cures
  • Location of visions

6
(No Transcript)
7
Church Reform1000 - 1300 AD
  • Need to re-examine position in society in
    relationship to
  • Kings and nations
  • Societal changes
  • Corruption
  • Councils to reform method of selecting pope and
    other abuses
  • Church authorities focused on wealth and
    political position
  • Benedictine order (Cluny, etc)

8
Church Reform
  • 4 Lateran Councils
  • Separate the church from secular influence
  • Reaffirm celibacy
  • Supported pilgrims
  • Addressed doctrinal issues

9
Church Reform
  • Anti-Jewish prejudice
  • Jews in Spain (Reconquest caused some to move
    into Europe)
  • Bankers
  • High interest loans resented
  • Jews were an impediment to a unified society
  • Actions taken
  • Crusaders looted Jewish communities
  • Jews expelled after the crusades
  • Jews moved to eastern Europe

10
New Monastic Order
  • Monasteries became common
  • Monks and nuns viewed highly
  • Landholders donated land
  • Abbots began to focus on material needs
  • Life of luxury rather than service to God
  • St. Francis and St. Dominic desired reform

11
Franciscans
  • Began by St. Francis of Assisi
  • To avoid corruption of the Benedictines
  • Captured in the crusades
  • Changed life
  • Dedicated to poverty and service
  • Formed a "Mendicant Order"
  • Owned nothing, begged
  • Lived in cities
  • Simple life was very appealing
  • Literal interpretation of the scriptures
  • Loved Gods creations
  • ("All Creatures of Our God and King")
  • Focus
  • Controlling "The Will"
  • Repenting of wayward actions

12
Dominicans
  • Founded by Dominic (Italian)
  • Order of Friars Preachers
  • Mendicant Order
  • Lived in cities but owned no land
  • The Intellect and understanding true doctrine
  • Power in universities
  • Vows of obedience, chastity, poverty
  • Several became Popes
  • Some became famous painters
  • Fra Angelico
  • Fra Bartolomeo
  • Enforced rules of the church

Meeting of St. Dominic and St. Francis by Fra
Angelico
13
Inquisition
  • Desire to unite Christendom (Reconquest)
  • Church court formed
  • Authority over doctrines
  • Run by Dominicans
  • Torture to get a confession
  • Auto da fé (act of faith)
  • Spanish (Torquemada) killed
  • Muslims and Jews expelled

14
Universities
  • Began in Spain and Africa by 8th C
  • Under the Muslims
  • Christian Europe in 11-12th C
  • European desire for reform and Dominican emphasis
    on learning
  • Value
  • Better quality of teaching
  • Eliminated need for each faculty to have
    individual school
  • Allowed church to control curriculum
  • Brought in money

15
Universities
16
Universities
  • Curriculum and organization
  • Faculty of arts based 7 liberating arts
  • Trivium (grammar, rhetoric, logic)
  • Bachelors degree
  • Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy,
    music)
  • Masters degree
  • Faculties of Theology, Medicine and Law
  • Doctors degree
  • Theology and Arts split in Paris
  • Arts to the left bank (Latin Quarter)
  • Sorbonne

17
Universities
  • Two types
  • Professor controlled (purpose jobs)
  • Student controlled (purpose education)
  • Dependence on cities for support
  • Complaints
  • Poor housing
  • High rent
  • Terrible food
  • Lack of jobs after graduation

18
Monastic Learning
  • Teaching method in early Middle Ages
  • Emphasized silence, obedience, submission
  • Monks assigned as reader
  • Not allowed to question
  • Glossing
  • Elaboration on a text
  • Bernard of Clairvaux
  • Conservative thinker and teacher (Abbot)
  • "Jesus, The Very Thought of You"
  • Strongly influenced choice of Pope
  • Strongly influenced formation of 2nd Crusade
  • Taught by glossing (86 sermons from chapters 1
    and 2 of Song of Solomon)
  • Strongly disagreed with other teaching methods

19
Scholastic Method
  • An alternate to the Monastic learning method
  • Popular in universities rather than abbeys
  • A philosophical and theological method
  • Began at University of Paris about 1100
  • Based on the assumption that philosophy and
    theology are in ultimate agreement
  • Philosophy based on the Greeks
  • Theology based on revelation (Bible and Church)
  • Used logic and discussion in ritualistic way to
    explore philosophy and theology

20
Scholastic Method
  • Typical classroom experience
  • Morningreadings to develop arguments
  • Afternoondiscussion, using didactic method
  • Next morningresolution of issue
  • Scholastic thinking (didactic method)
  • Example "Can God do everything?"
  • Example Can a man see God?
  • Example "Is it ever permissible to lie?"
  • Writing styleno adornment

21
Peter Abelard
  • Gave up inheritance to study philosophy
  • Teacher at the University of Paris
  • Sic et Non (Yes and No)
  • Conflicts not resolved in book
  • Scito de Ipsum (Know Thyself)
  • Chastised by the Pope
  • Bernard of Clairvaux
  • Heloise
  • Illegitimate son and secret marriage
  • Castration
  • Remainder of lives as abbot and abbess

22
Thomas Aquinas
  • From a wealthy family in Italy
  • Large, clumsy man
  • Ridiculed as a youth (flying cow)
  • Fathers desire Benedictine abbot like his uncle
    (wealthy)
  • Attended a university in Naples
  • Wanted to become a Dominican
  • Imprisoned by his parents
  • Memorized the bible while imprisoned
  • Tempted with prostitute
  • Released and became a Dominican

23
Thomas Aquinas
  • Moved to University of Paris
  • Studied theology
  • Taught by Albertus Magnus
  • Thomas became an expert in languages, literature,
    astronomy, mathematics, theology
  • Later taught at 3 universities
  • Pope named him Doctor of the Church

24
Aquinas
Philosophy (Reason)
Revelation
25
  • Demonstration of the existence of God can be
    made in two ways One is through the cause, and
    is called a priory, and this is to argue from
    what is prior absolutely. The other is through
    the effect, and is called a demonstration a
    posteriori this is to argue from what is prior
    relatively only to us. When an effect is better
    know to us than its cause, from the effect we
    proceed to the knowledge of the cause. And from
    every effect the existence of its proper cause
    can be demonstrated, so long as its effects are
    better known to us because since every effect
    depends upon its cause, if the effect exists, the
    cause must pre-exist. Hence the existence of
    God, in so far as it is not self-evident to us,
    can be demonstrated from those of His effects
    which are known to us.
  • Thomas Aquinas, Suma Theologica

26
Thomas Aquinas
  • Wrote over 40 books and several hymns
  • Summa Theologica
  • Used Aristotles logic and philosophy
  • Wanted to harmonize human learning (reason) with
    truths revealed by God
  • Reason is a method of discovering God's laws
  • Suggested that God followed laws
  • Some concepts are not provable by logic
  • Took middle path on most arguments
  • Softened doctrine of Augustine

27
  • Things are in motion, hence there is a first
    mover. Things are caused, hence there is a first
    cause. Things exist, hence there is a creator.
    Perfect goodness exists, hence it has a sourcer.
    Things are designed, hence they serve a purpose.
  • -- Thomas Aquinas

28
Thomas Aquinas
  • Government
  • Should not violate basic rights
  • Support divine laws
  • Laid foundation for the Enlightenment
  • Books on angles
  • Science
  • Perfected the Scholastic Method

29
Creative Thinking
  • Why did universities improve creativity?
  • Some independence of faculty
  • Strong student interest (paid for education)
  • Systematic teaching
  • New questions asked

30
Thank You
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