CPP REVIEW SUBSTANCE ABUSE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – CPP REVIEW SUBSTANCE ABUSE PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1b381-ZDQyM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

CPP REVIEW SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Description:

Chemically related to LSD. When eaten, affect mood and perception in a ... After the LSD 'trip', acute anxiety or depression may occur for a variable period. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:165
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 69
Provided by: jackt2
Category:
Tags: abuse | cpp | review | substance

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: CPP REVIEW SUBSTANCE ABUSE


1
CPP REVIEW SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • JAMES F. SMITH II, CPP
  • Area Manager
  • SBC Communications
  • ASIS CPP Review 8/21/01

2
SUBSTANCE ABUSE STATS
  • 73 of illegal drug abusers are employed.
  • Drug and alcohol abuse is one of the four top
    reasons for the rise in workplace violence.
  • In 1998, an estimated 13.6 million Americans were
    current illicit drug users.
  • Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug,
    81 of current drug users.

3
ECONOMIC IMPACT
  • Data indicates that substance abuse costs are
    estimated at over 100 billion dollars annually.
  • Alcoholism causes 500 million lost work days
    every year.
  • Drug using employees at GM average 40 days sick
    leave each year, compared to 4.5 days for
    non-users.

4
ECONOMIC IMPACT-TREATMENT
  • After employees successfully completed SA
    treatment programs in Ohio, employers reported
  • 1. Those employees had a 91 decrease in
    absenteeism.
  • 2. Those employees had a 88 decrease in
    problems with supervisors.
  • 3. Those employees had a 93 decrease in
    mistakes at work.
  • .

5
NATIONAL COCAINE HOTLINE
  • 75 reported using drugs on the job.
  • 64 admitted drugs adversely affected their job
    performance.
  • 44 sold drugs to other employees.
  • 18 had stolen from co-workers to support their
    habit.

6
THE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT OF 1970
  • Places all substances regulated by Federal law
    into one of five schedules, with Schedule 1
    containing the most restricted.
  • The schedule a substance is in affects the
    penalties related to the illegal possession,
    sale, or transfer of that substance.

7
CSA of 1970
  • Placement in a schedule is based upon
  • 1. Potential for abuse.
  • 2. Accepted medical use in U.S.
  • 3. Safety and dependence factors.

8
PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE
  • The condition in which the repeated use of a drug
    results in increasing tolerance which requires
    progressively larger doses to attain the desired
    effect, therefore reinforcing the compulsive
    behavior.

9
PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE
  • Refers to an alteration of the normal functions
    of the body which necessitates the continued
    presence of a drug to prevent the withdrawal
    syndrome which is characteristic of addictive
    drugs.

10
ANALOGUES (DESIGNER DRUGS)
  • Produced in clandestine laboratories in an
    attempt to circumvent existing drug laws.
  • They have slight variations in their chemical
    structures to avoid being listed as controlled
    substances.

11
TOLERANCE
  • Body condition wherein ever-increasing amounts of
    a drug are needed to gain the desired effect.

12
DRUG
  • A drug is a substance which, because of its
    chemical make-up alters the mood, perception, or
    consciousness of the user. All drugs are not
    illegal.
  • The most abused drug is alcohol and the most
    used drug is alcohol.

13
BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Abrupt changes in work attendance, quality of
    work, and work output.
  • Attitude changes.
  • Withdrawal from responsibility.
  • Breakdown in personal appearance.
  • Wearing of sunglasses at inappropriate times (to
    hide dilated or constricted pupils).

14
BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Wears long-sleeved garments to hide needle
    marks.
  • Association with known substance abusers.
  • Excessive borrowing of money.
  • Stealing small items.
  • Secretive habits.

15
METHODS OF INGESTION
  • Swallowing
  • Inhaling
  • Injecting
  • Snorting
  • Sublingual
  • Contact

16
CLASSIFICATIONS OF DRUGS
  • Narcotics
  • Depressants
  • Stimulants
  • Hallucinogens
  • Cannabis

17
NARCOTICS
  • Narcotic in its medical meaning refers to
    opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic
    substitutes.
  • Generally prescribed as sedatives, painkillers,
    to induce sleep, or to control diarrhea.
  • Essential in the practice of medicine, most
    effective agents known for the relief of intense
    pain.

18
NARCOTICS
  • Medically, administered orally or by injection.
  • As drugs of abuse they are sniffed, smoked,
    subcutaneously injected (skin popping), or
    intravenously injected (mainlining).

19
NARCOTICS EFFECTS
  • Pinpoint pupils.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Euphoria.
  • Reduced vision.
  • Respiratory depression.
  • Nausea.

20
NARCOTICS OF NATURAL ORIGIN
  • The poppy, cultivated in many countries around
    the world, is the main source of nonsynthetic
    narcotics.
  • Opium is extracted from the unripe seedpod, as a
    milky fluid, air dried to produce opium gum.
  • Modern method is poppy straw process of
    extracting the alkaloids from the mature dried
    plant.

21
OPIUM
  • The 25 alkaloids extracted from opium fall into
    two general categories
  • Phenanthrene alkaloids represented by morphine
    and codeine. Used as analgesics and cough
    suppressants.
  • Isoquinoline alkaloids represented by papaverine.
    Used as intestinal relaxant.
  • Both physical and psychological dependence is
    rated high with the use of opium.

22
NATURAL NARCOTICS
  • Opium.
  • Morphine.
  • Codeine.
  • Thebaine.

23
SEMI-SYNTHETIC NARCOTICS
  • These drugs are produced by the modification of
    the chemicals contained in opium
  • Heroin
  • Hydromorphone
  • Oxycodone
  • Etorphine and Diprenorphine
  • Hydrocodone

24
HEROIN
  • Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter
    taste. Illicit heroin varies from white to dark
    brown with a purity of 1 to 98.
  • Black Tar heroin is primarily from Mexico, 20
    to 80 pure.
  • Injected, sniffed, or smoked.
  • High physical and psychological dependence.

25
HYDROMORPHONE
  • Most commonly sold as Dilaudid. Marketed in both
    tablet and injectables.
  • Potency is 2-8 times that of morphine.
  • Shorter acting and more sedating than morphine.
  • Highly abusable drug, much sought after by
    narcotic addicts.

26
OXYCODONE
  • Synthesized from Thebaine.
  • Similar to Codeine, but more potent and with a
    higher dependence potential.
  • Combined with aspirin to create Percodan, for
    pain relief.
  • Addicts take Percodan orally, or dissolve tablets
    in water, filter out the insoluables, and
    mainline the active drug.

27
ETORPHINE AND DEPRENORPHINE
  • Both substances made from Thebaine.
  • Etorphine is more than a thousand times more
    potent as morphine in its analgesic, sedative,
    and respiratory depressant effect.
  • Great danger of overdose. Used by vets to
    immobilize large wild animals.
  • Deprenorphine used to counter the effects of
    Etorphine.

28
SYNTHETIC NARCOTICS
  • Meperidine, Methadone, Fentanyl.
  • Created entirely within the laboratory.
  • Continuing search for a product with the
    analgesic properties of morphine, without the
    dangers of tolerance and dependence.
  • Have yet to yield a drug not susceptible to
    abuse.

29
MEPERIDINE (PETHIDINE)
  • Also known as Demerol and Pethadol.
  • Most widely used drug for the relief of moderate
    to severe pain.
  • Administered either orally or by injection.

30
METHADONE
  • Synthesized during WWII by German scientists.
  • Almost as effective when administered orally as
    it is by injection.
  • Designed to control narcotic addiction, it is a
    major overdose hazard.
  • Long acting, effects last up to 24 hours.
  • Physical psychological dependence rated as
    high.

31
FENTANYL
  • Used extensively for anesthesia and analgesia.
  • More than 12 analogues have been produced
    clandestinely.
  • Biological effects indistinguishable from those
    of heroin.
  • May be hundreds of times more potent than heroin.
    Commonly injected but may be snorted or smoked.

32
DEPRESSANTS
  • Legitimately prescribed for relief of anxiety,
    irritability, tension, and insomnia.
  • In excessive amounts, induce an intoxication
    similar to alcohol.
  • High potential for physical and psychological
    dependence.

33
DEPRESSANTS
  • Tolerance to the intoxicating effects develops
    rapidly, leading to a progressive narrowing of
    the margin of safety between an intoxicating and
    lethal dose.
  • Used by addicts to soothe nerves brought on by
    use of stimulants, quell anxiety of flashbacks
    resulting from prior use of hallucinogens, or to
    ease withdrawal from heroin. This compounds the
    dangers of depressants.

34
BARBITURATES
  • Widely prescribed to induce sleep and sedation.
  • Often result in a build-up of tolerance and
    dependence on them is widespread.
  • Physical and psychological dependence classified
    as high moderate.

35
METHAQUALONE (QUAALUDE)
  • A synthetic sedative, it was widely abused
    because it was once mistakenly thought to be
    non-addictive and effective as an aphrodisiac.
  • Both the physical and psychological dependence
    rated as high.

36
BENZODIAZEPINES
  • Marketed as mild tranquilizers and sedatives.
  • Known under names of Librium, Clonopin, Valium,
    Xanax, Serax, and others.
  • Dependence of these drugs rated as low.

37
STIMULANTS
  • Of all abused drugs, stimulants are the most
    powerfully reinforcing.
  • Stimulants can lead to increasingly compulsive
    behavior.
  • The two most prevalent stimulants are nicotine
    and caffeine.
  • The protracted use of stimulants is followed by a
    period of depression known as crashing.

38
POSSIBLE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH STIMULANTS
  • Increased alertness.
  • Excitation.
  • Euphoria.
  • Increased pulse rate and blood pressure
  • Insomnia.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Irritability,anxiety, and apprehension.

39
COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE (HCL)
  • Most potent stimulant of natural origin,
    extracted from the leaves of the coca plant.
  • Grown in Andean highlands (Peru, Bolivia,
    Columbia) of South America since prehistoric
    times.
  • Generally processed in Columbia.

40
HCL - PROCESSING
  • Coca leaves are stomped in Apozo pits with
    various chemicals, including kerosene, to extract
    the alkaloids and produce crude coca paste.
  • The cocaine base is mixed with acetone and acid.
    The resulting cocaine hydrochloride crystals are
    strained and dried, producing pure cocaine.

41
HCL
  • Cocaine is usually distributed as a white, off
    white crystalline powder or compressed powder.
  • Often diluted with sugars such as lactose,
    inositol, mannitol, and local anesthetics such as
    lidocaine.
  • Diluted to increase volume and thus to multiply
    profits.
  • Commonly snorted or injected.

42
COCAINE BASE - CRACK
  • HCL powder mixed with water and baking soda.
  • HCL converts to the base which is water
    insoluble.
  • Water evaporated off leaving Cocaine Freebase
    (Crack)
  • Cooled and cut into chunks or rocks. Beige
    substance with wax like appearance.

43
PARAPHERNALIA
  • HCL
  • Spoons, Straws, Razor Blades, Syringe.
  • Crack
  • Pipes (cans, glass tubes, antennas)
  • Vials

44
COCAINE
  • Because of the intensity of its effects, has the
    potential for extraordinary psychic dependency.

  • Excessive doses may cause seizures and death from
    respiratory failure or stroke.
  • There is no specific antidote for cocaine
    overdose.
  • There is no safe dose of cocaine.

45
AMPHETAMINES - SLANG
  • Speed, Uppers, Pep Pills.
  • Black Beauties, Hearts, Bumblebees.
  • Crank, Crystal Meth, Crystal.
  • Ice - Smokable form of methamphetamine.

46
AMPHETAMINES
  • Closely parallel cocaine in both short-term and
    long-term effects.
  • Generally taken orally or injected. White to
    brown powder or tablets.
  • Ice is to Meth what Crack is to Cocaine.
    Ice-clear crystal like material, rock candy.

47
HALLUCINOGENS
  • Generally, both natural and synthetic substances
    which distort the perception of reality.
  • Induce a state of excitation of the central
    nervous system shown by mood alterations, usually
    euphoric. The mood may also become severely
    depressive.
  • The senses of direction, distance, and time
    become disoriented.

48
HALLUCINOGENS
  • In large doses, produces delusions and visual
    hallucinations.
  • Depression sometimes becomes so severe that
    suicide is possible.
  • Most common danger is impairment of judgment
    which often leads to rash decisions and
    accidents.
  • Recurrent use produces tolerance which tends to
    encourage using greater amounts.

49
HALLUCINOGENS
  • Long after hallucinogens are eliminated from the
    body, users may experience flashbacks which are
    fragmentary recurrences of psychedelic effects.
  • Recurrent use tends to produce psychic
    dependence.
  • No evidence of physical dependence.

50
PEYOTE AND MESCALINE
  • The primary active ingredient of the peyote
    cactus is Mescaline, which comes from the fleshy
    parts or bottoms of the cactus plant.
  • Mescaline can also be produced synthetically.
  • Full spectrum of effects is that of a chemically
    induced model of mental illness.

51
PEYOTE AND MESCALINE
  • Peyote is usually ground into a powder and taken
    orally.
  • A dose of 350 to 500 mg of mescaline produces
    illusions and hallucinations lasting from 5 to 12
    hours.
  • Peyote is used by the Native American church, and
    Indians in northern Mexico, in religious
    ceremonies.

52
PSILOCYBIN PSILOCYN
  • Mushrooms that grow in cow dung.
  • Chemically related to LSD.
  • When eaten, affect mood and perception in a
    manner similar to mescaline and LSD.
  • Used for centuries in traditional Indian rites.
  • Can now be made synthetically.

53
PCP (PHENCYCLIDINE)
  • Commonly known as PCP, Angel Dust, Supergrass,
    Killer Weed, Embalming Fluid, and Rocket Fuel.
  • Unique among popular drugs of abuse in that it is
    able to produce psychoses indistinguishable from
    schizophrenia.
  • Sold in tablets, capsules, powder, and liquid
    form.
  • Usually applied to leafy material (parsley, mint,
    oregano, or marijuana) and smoked.

54
LSD
  • Commonly known as acid and microdot.
  • Usually sold in the form of impregnated paper
    (blotter paper), tablets (microdots), or thin
    squares of gelatin (window panes).
  • Effects include impaired depth and time
    perception, accompanied by distorted perception
    of the size and shape of objects, movements,
    color, sound, touch, and the users own body
    image.

55
LSD
  • Derivative of alkaloid found on rye fungus
    ergot.
  • Very potent, 20 ug (a ug is a millionth of a
    gram) is a dose.
  • LSD is 5000 times as potent as Mescaline and 200
    times as potent as psilocybin.

56
LSD
  • Tolerance develops rapidly.
  • After the LSD trip, acute anxiety or depression
    may occur for a variable period.
  • Flashbacks may occur days or months after taking
    the last dose.

57
CLUB DRUGS
  • Refers to drugs being used by young adults at
    all-night dance parties, such as raves,
    trances, dance clubs, and bars.
  • Include MDMA (Ecstasy), GHB, Rohypnol, Ketamine,
    Meth, and LSD.
  • Most often used in combination with alcohol,
    making it even more dangerous.

58
MDMA, MDA, DOB, DOM
  • Chemical variations of mescaline and amphetamine.
    (Any Acronym)
  • Slang terms Ecstasy, XTC, X, Adam, Clarity,
    Lovers Speed.
  • Produce both stimulant and hallucinogenic
    effects.
  • Taken orally, usually in a tablet or capsule.
    Sometimes snorted.

59
GHB
  • Slang Grievous Bodily Harm, G, Liquid Ecstasy,
    Georgia Home Boy.
  • Produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet
    and capsule forms.
  • Abused for its intoxicating, sedative, euphoriant
    properties.

60
KETAMINE
  • Slang Special K, K, Vitamin K, Cat Valiums.
  • Produced in liquid form or as a white powder that
    is snorted or smoked with tobacco products or
    marijuana.
  • Large doses cause reactions similar to those
    associated with PCP, such as dream-like states
    and hallucinations.

61
ROHYPNOL
  • Tasteless and odorless and it dissolves easily in
    carbonated beverages.
  • Sedative in the class of drugs along with Valium
    and Xanax.
  • One mg dose can impair victim for 8 to 12 hours.
    Loss of memory.
  • Comes in tablet but can be ground up and snorted.

62
CANNABIS SATIVA L
  • The source of cannabis is the hemp plant which
    grows wild throughout most of the tropic and
    temperate regions of the world.
  • Green leafy material usually smoked in the form
    of loosely rolled cigarettes called joints, or
    in pipes.

63
CANNABIS - EFFECTS
  • Euphoria.
  • Relaxed inhibitions.
  • Increased appetite.
  • Disoriented behavior.
  • State of intoxication may not be noticeable to an
    observer.

64
CANNABIS
  • The cannabis plant contains chemicals called
    cannabinoids.
  • The psychoactive effects of cannabis are caused
    by one of the chemicals, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabi
    nol (THC).
  • One joint of todays marijuana is equal to 14
    joints from the late 1970s.

65
HASHISH
  • Consists of resinous secretions of the cannabis
    plant, which are collected, dried, and compressed
    into forms such as balls, cakes, or cookie-like
    sheets.
  • Hashish Oil higher concentration. Produced by a
    process of repeated extraction of cannabis plant
    materials to yield a dark viscous liquid. One
    drop of this liquid on a cigarette is equal to a
    single joint of marijuana.

66
SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS
  • Rationale Control and rehabilitation is more
    humane and cost effective than termination.
  • The policy of the organization should include
  • The attitude of the organization on drug abuse.
  • The criteria to be applied.
  • The actions that will be taken.

67
DRUG SCREENING
  • Enzyme Multiplied Immunossay Technique (EMIT).
  • Easy to administer and relatively inexpensive.
  • Can be used for a combination of substances.

68
DRUG SCREENING
  • Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry highly
    reliable tests predominately used for confirming
    initial positives or preliminary tests.
  • Confirming tests should be done on the same
    specimen.
About PowerShow.com