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Adolescence Physical

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biological end of childhood. sexual maturation. reproduction is first ... Goal was androgynous behavior. androgynous combining or blending traditional male ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adolescence Physical


1
Adolescence Physical Sexual Development
  • Storm and Stress?
  • Or
  • Joyful time of life?

Stanley Hall (1904)
Margaret Mead (1935)
2
Adolescence Physical Development
  • Puberty
  • biological end of childhood
  • sexual maturation
  • reproduction is first possible

Girls 8-9 yrs. old
Boys 9-16 yrs. old
3
Adolescence Physical Development
  • Growth Spurts
  • A rapid increase in height and weight

Girls peak change at 12 yr.
Boys peak change after 14 yrs.
4
Adolescence Physical Development
  • Reactions to Growth
  • Boys who mature early have an advantage
  • Girls who mature early can become
  • Embarrassed
  • Begin dating early
  • bossy

5
Adolescence Personal Development
  • Cognitive Development
  • With formal operations (Piaget), thinking
    becomes more abstract
  • Hypotheticals - what if . . . ?
  • Rationalization explaining an unpleasant
    emotion or behavior in a way that preserves ones
    self-esteem

6
Adolescence Personal Development
  • Problems adolescence face because of immature and
    abstract thought (Elkind)
  • Finding fault with authorities
  • Argumentativeness
  • Indecisiveness
  • Apparent hypocrisy
  • Self-consciousness
  • Invulnerability

7
Adolescence Personal Development
  • Moral Development
  • Most never reach Kohlbergs higher stages (only 1
    in 10 do)
  • Depends on relationship with parents and
    significant others
  • Usually does not change much in high school, but
    does after that, when the person leaves home

8
Adolescence Personal Development
  • Identity Development
  • Most adolescents go through an identity crisis
    (Erikson)
  • A period of inner conflict where you worry about
    your identity, who you are and who you will
    become

9
Adolescence Personal Development
  • Identity Development
  • James Marcia (1966) describes four attempts to
    achieve a sense of identity

10
Adolescence Social Development
  • Family Roles
  • Before 1970s father worked outside home, mother
    worked in the home
  • Now
  • Nearly half of marriages end in divorce
  • Nearly half of women are in the workforce
  • Typical family has two wage earners

11
Adolescence Social Development
  • Roles of Peers
  • Teens belong to well-defined groups based on
  • Gender at first, then
  • Class (socio-economic level)
  • Appearance, popularity
  • Athletic abilities

Clique a small, exclusive group within a larger
group
12
Adolescence Social Development
  • Influence of a Clique
  • Provides a way to experience closeness
  • Helps establish identity
  • Helps with self-confidence
  • Provides independence from family
  • Usually leads to conformity

Conformity acting in accordance with some
specified authority
13
Adolescence Social Development
  • Dominant Influence
  • Parents
  • education,
  • religion,
  • marriage
  • Peers-
  • Fashion
  • Music
  • School issues
  • Teach children how to behave in the world
    (Judith Harris, 1998)

14
Adolescence Social Development
  • Difficulties During Adolescence
  • Illusion of invulnerability
  • 17 of violent crime
  • 35 of property crime
  • Depression
  • Loss of a loved one
  • Separation
  • divorce
  • Suicide

15
Adolescence Social Development
  • Difficulties During Adolescence
  • Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa fear of gaining weight leads
    to self starvation and dramatic weight loss
  • Bulimia Nervosa compulsive overeating and
    self-induced vomiting or abuse of laxatives

16
Adolescence Gender Roles
  • Gender Identity the sex group to which an
    individual biologically belongs
  • Gender Role set of behaviors that society
    considers appropriate for each sex, as a result
    of
  • genetic make-up
  • society/culture

17
Adolescence Gender Roles
  • Gender Stereotypes oversimplified/distorted
    generalization about characteristics of men and
    women

18
Adolescence Gender Roles
  • Bem Sex Role Inventory Evaluation of traits
    among people of both sexes
  • Goal was androgynous behavior

androgynous combining or blending traditional
male and female characteristics
19
Adolescence Gender Roles
  • Gender Differences
  • Males
  • more confident,
  • express anger physically
  • Females
  • express anger verbally
  • use hedges in speech

20
Adulthood
  • Physical Changes
  • Early Adulthood
  • Peak years in 20s

21
Adulthood
  • Physical Changes
  • Middle Adulthood
  • 30s and 40s
  • Less active
  • Gain weight
  • By late 40s, less lung capacity, heart strength,
    and eyesight

22
Adulthood
  • Physical Changes
  • Late Adulthood
  • 50s and 60s
  • Bone loss, less lung output
  • Skin wrinkles
  • Joints deteriorate
  • Senses less acute
  • Hearts less efficient

Menopause period in which a womans production
of sex hormone (estrogen) is sharply decreased
23
Adulthood
  • Physical Changes
  • Old Age
  • 70s
  • Less muscle strength, bone density, heart and
    lung capacity

24
Adulthood
  • Physical Changes
  • Marriage Divorce
  • 40-60 of marriages end in divorce
  • Success depends on
  • How couples handle conflicts
  • How often couples share intimate/happy moments

25
Adulthood
  • Physical Changes
  • Sexual Behavior
  • No physical reason it declines
  • Usually declines because
  • Boredom
  • Poor physical condition
  • Illness
  • stereotypes

26
Adulthood
  • Cognitive Changes
  • Can continue to acquire knowledge as you age
  • Speed may decrease
  • Peaks reached in 40s for science and the arts
  • Peaks reached in 60s for history, foreign
    language, literature

27
Adulthood
  • Personality Development
  • Males
  • Levinsons Theory 5 levels
  • Females
  • Empty-nest syndrome
  • Depression

28
Levinsons Theory of Male Development
  • In groups 4-6, read the description of the level
    in Levinsons Male Development (found in Chapter
    5, Sec. 1) that you choose at random.
  • NOTE Make sure there is at least one male in
    each group
  • Present a short skit of what is going on in that
    transition period to the class
  • The class will then guess which period you are
    describing
  • Complete the chart and turn it in for a grade

29
Levinsons Theory of Male Development
30
Old Age
  • Attitudes about Aging
  • Decremental model of aging progressive physical
    and mental declines are inevitable
  • Inaccurate and leads to ageism

Ageism prejudice or discrimination toward the
elderly
31
Old Age
  • Changes in Health
  • Most common chronic diseases of aged
  • Heart disease
  • Hypertension
  • Cancer
  • Arthritis

32
Old Age
  • Changes in Life Situation
  • Retirement
  • Loss of Spouse
  • Loneliness/Depression
  • Some take up new hobbies with new friends
  • Some continue to be sexually active

33
Old Age
  • Changes in Mental Functioning
  • Senile Dementia
  • Decrease in mental activity by people in old age
  • Alzheimers Disease
  • Condition that destroys a persons ability to
    think, remember, relate to others, and care for
    theirself

34
Dying and Death
  • Adjusting to Death
  • Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
  • Five stages of dying
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance
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