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FET INDUSTRIAL WATEWATER OPERATOR TRAINING METAL FINISHING METAL MOLDING AND CASTING

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An operator uses 1300 pounds of Alum per day in a wastewater flow of 12 MGD. ... Rearrange to solve for C: 1300 lbs/day -C (mg/L) = 13 mg/L alum (12 mgd)(8.34) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FET INDUSTRIAL WATEWATER OPERATOR TRAINING METAL FINISHING METAL MOLDING AND CASTING


1
FET INDUSTRIAL WATEWATER OPERATOR TRAINING METAL
FINISHING / METAL MOLDING AND CASTING
SESSION 1 OCTOBER 4, 2006 Robert Peschel,
P.E. (414) 643-4150 (Sigma) rpeschel_at_thesigmagroup
.com
2
SESSION 1
  • Introduction of Course/Participants
  • Course Outline
  • Text Treatment of Metal Wastestreams
  • Need for Treatment (Chapter 1)
  • Regulatory Overview
  • Opportunities
  • Sources of Wastewater (Chapter 2)
  • Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS (Chapter 3)
  • Employee Right-To-Know (Chapter 4)
  • Arithmetic Problems (Appendix III)
  • Methods of Treatment (Chapter 5)
  • Batch and Continuous Processes (5.0)
  • Neutralization (5.1)
  • Common Metals Removal (5.2)
  • Complex Metals Removal (5.3)
  • Reduction Hex Chrome (5.4)
  • Cyanide Destruction (5.5)

3
COURSE OUTLINE
  • OCTOBER 4
  • Introduction/Overview
    Robert Peschel
  • Regulatory Overview
  • Basic Math
  • Basics of Treatment
  • Hexavalent Chrome Reduction
  • Cyanide Destruction
  • Metals Removal
  • Example Calculations/Problems
  • OCTOBER 11
  • Oily Waste Removal Scott Hartay
  • Control of Solvents/Toxic Organics
  • Sludge Treatment Disposal
  • Sampling Flow Measurements Steve Galewski
  • Laboratory Support
  • Example Calculations/Problems

4
NEED FOR TREATMENT
  • REGULATORY OVERVIEW
  • Clean Water Act
  • Objective and Goals
  • Policies
  • Structure
  • Important Sections
  • NPDES
  • Pretreatment
  • Stormwater

5
OBJECTIVE OF CWA
  • To restore and maintain the chemical, physical,
    and biological integrity of the nations waters
  • GOALS OF CWA
  • Achieve fishable and swimmable water by 1983
    (interim)
  • Eliminate the discharge of pollutants into
    navigable waters by 1985

6
NATIONAL POLICIES OF CWA
  • Prohibit discharge of toxics in toxic amounts
  • Provide federal assistance to construct POTWs
  • Develop and implement area-wide waste treatment
    management plants in each state (208 plans)
  • Conduct RD necessary to develop zero discharge
    technology
  • Develop programs to control non-point sources of
    pollution
  • Encourage the minimization of paperwork and
    interagency decisions

7
STRUCTURE OF ACT
  • Title 1 Research and Related Programs
  • Title 2 Grants for POTW Construction
  • Title 3 Standards and Enforcement
  • Title 4 Permits and Licenses
  • Title 5 General Provisions
  • Title 6 State Revolving Funds

8
TITLE 1RESEARCH AND RELATED PROGRAMS
  • Objective, goals, and policies
  • Coordination between state and federal agencies
  • Develop research projects
  • Develop demonstration projects
  • Develop operator training programs
  • Develop specific programs (GLNPO)

9
TITLE 2CONSTRUCTION GRANTS
  • Federal grant program
  • Authorizes funding
  • Defines eligible projects
  • Sets participation requirements
  • Establishes planning programs (208)
  • Establishes allotment formula

10
TITLE 3STANDARDS AND ENFORCEMENT
  • Standards and standard setting procedures
  • Pollutants (priority)
  • Deadlines
  • Variances waivers
  • Water quality criteria
  • Inventories of water quality
  • Monitoring record keeping
  • Enforcement programs
  • Spills of hazardous substances

11
TITLE 4PERMITS AND LICENSES
  • NPDES permit system
  • Discharger certification/public comment
  • Delegation to states
  • Anti-backsliding
  • Storm water discharges
  • Ocean discharges
  • Dredge fill operations
  • Sludge disposal/management

12
TITLE 5GENERAL PROVISISONS
  • Grants authority to EPA to carry out law
  • Provides key definitions
  • Creates advisory boards
  • Citizens suit provision
  • Employee protection for reporting violations
  • Supply of goods services to federal government
  • Periodic needs surveys
  • American Indian tribes treated like states
  • State authority for NPDES/Pretreatment Programs

13
EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
  • Source category basis
  • Industrial categories
  • Technology based limits
  • Conventional and toxic pollutants
  • Local limits

14
EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
  • Direct discharges NPDES
  • Indirect discharges to POTW
  • Existing sources (3 years)
  • New sources (90 days)
  • BPT, BCT, BAT, BADCT
  • Concentration vs. mass

15
STANDARDS
  • BPT- Best Practicable Control Technology.
  • Currently available. Subject to cost-benefit
    analysis.
  • (middle ground between BCT and BAT)
  • BCT- Best Conventional Control Technology
  • Subject to cost effectiveness standard. Must be
    met
  • within three years of effective guidelines or
    3/89.
  • BAT- Best Available Technology Economically
    Achievable.
  • Deemed achievable unless plant closure would
    result.
  • Must be installed within three years of guideline
    or 3/89.
  • BADCT- for new sources (NSPS).
  • Best Available Demonstrable Control Technology
  • NSPS- New Source Performance Standards
  • PSNS- Pretreatment Standards for New Sources
  • PSES- Pretreatment Standards for Existing Sources

16
POLLUTANTS
  • Conventional
  • BOD, TSS, pH
  • Non-conventional
  • Ammonia
  • Toxics
  • Priority pollutants (65)
  • Metals
  • Organics
  • pesticides

17
NPDES PERMITS
  • Required for any discharge of Pollutant from
    any Point Source into any Waters of the U.S.
  • Key to enforcing CWA limits and standards
  • Delegation to States (e.g. WPDES)
  • Allows for public involvement in permitting
    process
  • Can be modified for reason
  • Anti-backsliding provisions

18
PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS OBJECTIVES
  • Prevent pass-through of toxics to receiving water
  • Prevent interference with POTW operations
  • Prevent contamination of sludges
  • Protect health and safety of workers

19
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM FRAMEWORK
  • EPA has prime responsibility
  • Delegations to states with approved programs
  • POTWs gt 5 MGD must establish formal program and
    have first time responsibility
  • MMSD Chapter 11
  • POTWs lt MGD have state or EPA involvement

20
PRETREATMENT STANDARDS
  • General prohibitive standards
  • Fire or explosion hazard
  • Corrosive, pH lt5
  • Flow obstruction
  • Slug loads
  • Heat
  • Toxic gasses or vapors
  • Categorical standards
  • Local POTW limits
  • Combined waste stream formula 409 CFR 403.6(e)
  • Most stringent standard applies!

21
PRETREATMENT STANDARDS
  • General prohibitive standards
  • Fire or explosion hazard
  • Corrosive, pH lt5
  • Flow obstruction
  • Slug loads
  • Heat
  • Toxic gasses or vapors
  • Categorical standards
  • Local POTW limits
  • Combined waste stream formula 409 CFR 403.6(e)
  • Most stringent standard applies!

22
MAJOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE PROGRAM (IWP) COMPONENTS
  • Sewer use ordinance
  • Permitting procedures
  • Compliance monitoring
  • Enforcement
  • Funding mechanism
  • Biennial review of effluent limitations

23
STORM WATER REGULATIONS
  • Most point sources are not under control through
    NPDES permits
  • Waterway in heavily populated areas are still
    being degraded
  • Most states have identified storm water as
    leading cause of impairment
  • Various studies have confirmed problems
  • Illicit Connections till exist
  • Illegal dumping still occurs
  • Congressional mandates

24
WHATS IN A PERMIT
  • Effective/expiration dates
  • Monitoring and reporting requirement
  • Location
  • Frequency
  • Parameter limits
  • Parameter monitoring
  • Notification
  • Reporting
  • Enforcement
  • Signatory requirements

25
MMSD Chapter 11Prohibited Discharges
  • Explosive or fire hazard lt 140 flash point
  • pH lt 5
  • Heat gt 104 F
  • radioactive
  • Stormwater, cooling water, groundwater,
    unpolluted
  • Oil and Grease ( OG) 300 mg/l
  • Cadmium 1.5 mg/l
  • Copper 6.0 mg/l
  • Lead 2.0 mg/l
  • Nickel 4.0 mg/l
  • Silver 5.8 mg/l
  • Zinc 8.0 mg/l
  • Cyanide 5.0 mg/l

26
SOURCES OF WASTEWATER
  • Parts cleaning
  • Parts rinsing
  • Process baths
  • Floor wash
  • Process system cleaning/washing
  • Vibratory clean
  • Contact cooling
  • Performance testing
  • Leakage
  • Air Pollution Control
  • Blowdown
  • Backwash

27
SOURCES OF WASTEWATER
  • 40 CFR 433 Metal Finishing
  • Big Six
  • Electroplating
  • Electroless plating
  • Anodizing
  • Coating chromating, phosphating, metal coloring,
    passaviting.
  • Etching and chemical milling
  • Printed circuit board manufacturing

28
SOURCES OF WASTEWATER
  • 40 CFR 464 Metal Molding and Casting
  • Subcategories for aluminum, zinc, ferrous
  • Processes
  • Quenching
  • Cleaning
  • Manufacturing system leakage
  • Heat treating
  • Contact cooling
  • Mass based discharge limits

29
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30
SOURCES OF WASTEWATER
  • ISSUES OF CONCERN
  • Segregating waste streams, i.e., cyanide, hex
    chrome
  • Bypass treatment
  • Batch dump
  • Equalization
  • Production schedule
  • Special conditions

31
SOURCES OF WATERWATER MANAGEMENT TOOLS
  • Process schematic
  • Flows and loads
  • Dump schedule
  • Quality driven / production issues
  • Pretreatment at source
  • Maintenance Improvements

32
(No Transcript)
33
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
  • Explanation of form
  • Table 1 in text
  • Section I
  • Section II Hazardous Ingredients / Identify
    Information
  • Hazardous components
  • TLV
  • PEL
  • Section III Physical / Chemical Characteristics
  • Boiling point
  • Vapor pressure
  • Vapor density
  • Specific gravity
  • Melting point
  • Evaporation rate
  • Solubility in water
  • Appearance and odor

34
MSDS
  • Section V Reactivity Data
  • Stability, incompatibility, hazardous
    decomposition, hazardous polymerization
  • Section VI Health Hazard Data
  • Routes of Entry, acute and chronic,
    carcinogenicity, signs and symptoms of exposure,
    medical conditions generally aggravated,
    emergency and first aid
  • Section VII Precautions for safe handling or
    storage, other
  • Section VIII Control Measures
  • Respiratory, ventilation, protective gloves, eye
    protection, other PPE, work/hygiene practices

35
MSDSUSEFUL INFORMATION
  • Knowledge and understand risk
  • Emergencies
  • Environmental reporting
  • Diagnosing a situation

36
EMPLOYEE RIGHT-TO-KNOW
  • OSHA Haz Com Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200
  • Need
  • Notification
  • Training
  • Access to records
  • Exposure and medical records
  • Limitations
  • Refusal to work
  • Liability
  • Notice

37
ARITHMETIC PROBELMS
  • Appendix III
  • Steps in problem solving
  • Conversion factors
  • Volume
  • Percent removal or efficiency
  • Loading
  • Example problems

38
STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Step 1 What does the problem tell you?
  • A. Read the problem twice, underlining the key
    words and data
  • B. Draw a picture of the situation
  • C. Label the picture with the given
    information
  • Step 2 What does the problem ask?
  • A. Determine from the problem and picture the
    unknown you are trying to find.
  • B. Select the formula which solves for the
    unknown
  • Step 3 Determine the solution (Work the problem)
  • A. Write down selected formula
  • B. Plug in information from problem and picture
  • C. Check units of conversions
  • D. Compute the solution
  • E. Check your results

39
CONVERSION FACTORS
  • A relationship by which you can express a
  • quantity in different units.
  • Length 1 foot 12 inches
  • Area (A) 1 sq. yd. 9 sq.ft.
  • Volume (V) 1 cu. ft. 7.48 gal
  • Weight 1 gal 8.34 lbs of water
  • Velocity 1 ft/sec
  • Flow (Q) A x V gpm or mgd or ml per second
  • 1 cu.ft/sec 7.48 gal/sec449 gal/min
  • Metric (liters, grams) vs. English ( gallons,
    pounds)

40
VOLUME
  • Volume (Area x Depth) or (Area X Height)
  • Rectangular Solids
  • Volume L x W x H
  • Tank 4 x 2 x 2 16 cu ft.
  • 16 cu. ft. x 7.48 gal/cu. ft. 120 gal
  • Cylinders
  • Volume A x H
  • Tank 30 ft. dia., 10 ft high
  • p x r2 x H
  • 3.14 x 15 x 15 x 10 7065 cu. ft. 52,846 gal

41
PROBLEM
  • What is the detention time in a clarifier that
    has a diameter of 40 feet, a depth of fluid of 12
    feet, and a flow rate of 1.3 MGD?

42
PERCENT () REMOVAL OR EFFICIENCY
  • Definition
  • The portion of pollutants removed in a process
    (unit)
  • expressed as a percentage of what goes into the
  • process (unit).
  • Removal (In Out/ In) X 100
  • Removed In Out
  • Importance
  • Calculations of treatment unit of plant
    efficiency used.

43
SAMPLE PROBLEM
  • A tank has an influent suspended solids (SS)
    concentration of 100 mg/L and an effluent SS
    concentration of 60 mg/L. What is the percent
    () reduction in suspended solids in the tank?

44
SAMPLE PROBLEM BREAKDOWN
  • removal In-Out/In X 100
  • removal 100-60/100 X 100
  • removal 40

45
LOADING
  • Definition
  • Loading is the amount of pollutant that a
    treatment unit or plant receives. It is
  • normally expressed as pounds per day (lb/day).
  • Load (lb/day) Concentration (mg/L or PPM) x Flow
    (MGD) x 8.34
  • The loading formula is the only formula that the
    terms multiplied together
  • dont cancel. But as long as the concentration
    is mg/L is multiplied by the
  • flow in MDG and is then multiplied by 8.34, the
    answer will be lbs/day.
  • Mg/L is milligrams per liter
  • PPM is parts per million
  • MGD is million gallons per day
  • Importance
  • Loading is a basic design consideration for a
    treatment system. It determines the basic size
    and type of treatment.
  • Computation of amount (pounds) of chlorine needed
    per day or amount (cubic feet) of air needed in
    an aeration tank.
  • Assessment of payment on user charges.

46
SAMPLE PROBLEM
  • A treatment plant receives a raw wastewater flow
    of 100,000 gallons per day with an average
    influent Zinc concentration of 300 milligrams per
    liter (mg/L). What is the Zinc loading upon the
    facility?
  • Loading in pounds per day?
  • Given concentration 300 mg/l, flow 0.1 mgd
  • Loading concentration x MGD x 8.34
  • Loading 300 mg/l x 0.1 MGD x 8.34 250 lbs/day

47
SAMPLE PROBLEM
  • An operator uses 1300 pounds of Alum per day in a
    wastewater flow of 12 MGD. What is the Alum
    concentration in mg/liter?
  • Given
  • pounds of Alum used 1300 lbs per day
  • wastewater flow 12 mgd (million gallons per
    day)
  • Find
  • Alum concentration in mg/l (milligrams per
    liter)

48
Solution
  • Use the pounds formula
  • pounds/day Q x C x 8.34
  • where Q wastewater flow in units mgd
  • C concentration in units mg/l
  • 8.34 conversion factor 8.34 lbs/gallon in
    dilute steam systems, where the specific
    gravity is close to 1.0
  • Substitute in
  • 1300 lbs/day 12 mgd x C (mg/L) x 8.34
  • Rearrange to solve for C
  • 1300 lbs/day
  • ---------------------- C (mg/L) 13 mg/L
    alum
  • (12 mgd)(8.34)
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