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Architecture Research Methods ARCH 5365

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Judge your readers or listeners, imagine who they are, what they like, what they ... about both the nature of reality and how one can come to apprehend it. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture Research Methods ARCH 5365


1
Architecture Research MethodsARCH 5365
  • Gary W. Smith, 2006

2
  • Judge your readers or listeners, imagine who they
    are, what they like, what they know, and what
    they need and want. Then let that information
    shape what you write.
  • Dont write above or below your readers
    intelligence.

3
  • YOUR ROLE
  • Create a relationship with your reader that makes
    them want to read your reportstarting with the
    title.
  • The key to a report here, or in the office, is
    not how much information you can collect, but
    rather how you interpret and analyze what you
    find.
  • Remember that you are the expert as you probably
    know more than your reader. MDSI Program is no
    different and neither is your project.

4
  • Three kinds of relationships between the writer
    and the reader.
  • Ive found something interesting i.e. historical
    facts.
  • Ive found a solution to a practical problem
    important to you architectural issues related to
    construction, practice, office procedures.
  • Shape your report around a specific intention
    that shapes your role to advise a reader about
    what he must do to solve his problem.
  • Often applied research

5
  • Ive found an answer to a question important to
    you.
  • Usually academic
  • Research solves NOT a practical problem, but
    rather a conceptual problem.
  • Pure research as opposed to applied research.
  • Answers a question the readers want to understand
    better.

6
  • THE READERS ROLE (Related to the list above)
  • Entertain me with something interesting I did not
    know.
  • Help me solve a practical problem.
  • Offer the solution with ONLY the facts to back it
    up
  • Help me understand something better
  • In all three, you must be objective, logical,
    faithful to the evidence and able to see the
    question from all sides.

7
  • Dealing with Inexperience
  • Be aware that there are uncertainties and
    anxieties
  • Get control over your topic by writing along the
    way
  • Summaries
  • Critiques
  • Questions
  • Break the process into manageable steps
  • Good teachers (and supervisors) want you to
    succeed. ASK FOR HELP.
  • Set realistic goals

8
  • The choice of a particular research design is
    framed by the researchers own assumptions about
    both the nature of reality and how one can come
    to apprehend it.
  • Terms that describe these sets of assumptions
  • System of inquiry
  • Paradigm

9
  • Goals of Chapter 2, GW
  • to provide a conceptual framework for
    understanding the range of paradigms used in
    architectural research
  • to clarify the way in which standards for
    evaluating research quality are substantially
    dependent on the system of inquiry employed by
    the researcher

10
  • DICHOTOMOUS FRAMEWORK OF SYSTEMS OF INQUIRY
  • Science
  • Mathematical
  • Atomistic
  • Reductionist
  • Convergent
  • Involves
  • Technology
  • Engineering
  • Behavioral issues

11
  • Mythic or poetic
  • Continuous
  • Holistic
  • Divergent
  • Generative
  • Involves
  • Architectural history
  • Design theory

12
  • Ontological (ontology)
  • Asks what are the fundamental categories of
    being?
  • What is reality?
  • What is?
  • Specification of a conceptualization.
  • Ontology is a description (like a formal
    specification of a program) of the concepts and
    relationships that can exist for an agent or a
    community of agents.
  • Study of the categories of things that exist or
    may exist in some domain.
  • It is the nature of reality.

13
  • Epistomological (epistemology)
  • philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and
    scope of knowledge the science of knowing.
  • Seeks ways to justify knowledge statements.
  • Epistemology is the study of our method of
    acquiring knowledge.
  • It answers the question, "How do we know?"
  • It encompasses the nature of concepts, the
    constructing of concepts, the validity of the
    senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts,
    ideas, memories, emotions, and all things mental.
  • It is the nature of knowledge, relationship
    between knower and would-be-known.

14
Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigm Assumptions
15
  • Quantitativeobjective reality, researcher is
    independent of the subject of inquiry, a
    deductive process that seeks cause-and-effect
    explanations.
  • vs.
  • Qualitativesubjective reality, the researcher is
    interactive with the subject of inquiry, an
    inductive process of inquiry that seeks
    clarification of multiple critical factors
    affecting the phenomenon.

16
  • The author states that the dichotomous framework
    places the emphasis on distinctions at the level
    of tactics the techniques for gathering or
    interpreting evidence or data. Not always so
    clear.
  • Could employ a combination of quantitative and
    qualitative tactics.

17
  • CONTINUUM FRAMEWORK FOR MULTIPLE SYSTEMS OF
    INQUIRY
  • A range of approaches from Subjective to
    Objective (qualitative to quantitative), yet
    still based on two approaches.

18
  • TRIPARTITE CLUSTERS
  • Based on Positivism/Postpositivism Naturalism
    and Emancipatory (and any combination of these
    approaches).
  • Positivism naïve belief in a reality out there
    that can be fully known. Objective.
  • Postpositivism belief in an out there reality
    that can only be known within some level of
    probability. Objective.

19
  • Naturalism multiple, socially constructed
    realities. Qualitative. Interpretive.
  • Emancipatory includes critical theory, feminist,
    race-specific, participatory and transformative
    paradigms. Stresses the role that social,
    political, cultural, ethnic, and gender issues
    play in the social construction of reality.

20
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUALITY STANDARDS
21
  • Quality Standards For Emancipatory System
  • Historical Situatedness takes into account the
    political, gender, ethnic and racial aspects of
    the setting under investigation
  • Eroding Ignorance the extent to which the
    inquiry acts to erode ignorance and
    misunderstanding (makes explicit social,
    cultural, and physical dynamics that have
    previously gone unnoticed)
  • Transformational Impulse transformative
    potential of the inquiry (seeks to provoke
    changes in the values, attitudes and practices of
    architecture)

22
Notes
  • Information in these lectures was adapted from
    the following sources
  • Booth, Wayne C., Colomb, Gregory G., Williams,
    Joseph M. 2003. The Craft of Research. Second
    Edition. Chicago University of Chicago Press.
  • Groat, Linda N. and Wang, David C. 2002.
    Architectural Research Methods. New York John
    Wiley.
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