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Intro to Expert Systems Paula Matuszek CSC 8750, Fall, 2004

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Cognitive science research in nature of expertise. Expertise = knowledge. Dendral. Mycin. Expert Systems, Paula Matuszek. 4. 10/24/09. Elements of an Expert System ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intro to Expert Systems Paula Matuszek CSC 8750, Fall, 2004


1
Intro to Expert SystemsPaula MatuszekCSC 8750,
Fall, 2004
2
What is an Expert System?
  • A Branch of Artificial Intelligence
  • An expert system is
  • An intelligent computer program
  • That uses knowledge
  • And automated reasoning or inference
  • To solve difficult problems
  • By emulating human expertise
  • In a specialized or delimited area
  • Overlaps with knowledge-based systems
  • May provide solutions, take actions, give advice

3
How did we get here?
  • Early AI programs
  • Powerful symbolic programming
  • Applied to small amounts of data
  • Second stage heuristics
  • Hardware advances more memory available
  • Cognitive science research in nature of expertise
  • Expertise knowledge
  • Dendral
  • Mycin

4
Elements of an Expert System
  • Knowledge Base
  • Inference
  • Fact/Database
  • Optional but common components
  • User interface
  • Explanation facility
  • Automated Knowledge acquisition facility
  • Other bells and whistles
  • An expert system shell is a system for creating
    expert systems, typically containing all of the
    above except the KB

5
Knowledge Base (KB)
  • Information derived from the human expert rules
    of thumb, in-depth knowledge about overall
    domain.
  • Knowledge about a field represented in an
    organized, declarative fashion
  • Each application of an expert system has a KB
  • Process of creating KB is knowledge engineering
    (KE)
  • KE includes
  • Decisions about What information to represent
  • Decisions about How to represent it
  • Encoding detailed knowledge
  • Roles in KE include
  • Expert system specialist (knowledge engineer)
  • Subject matter specialist (domain expert)

6
Inference Engine
  • Reasoning tool of the expert system.
  • Inference engine
  • Applies the contents of the knowledge base
  • To the information in a fact base
  • To reach a decision.
  • Inference typically proceeds in one of two ways
  • Start with known facts and work forward (forward
    chaining)
  • Start with a goal and work backward (backward
    chaining)
  • Form of inference is related to form of knowledge
    base.

7
Fact Base
  • Information to this specific case or run of the
    expert system.
  • Also known as database, blackboard, instances
  • Typically empty at the beginning of a case.
  • Gradually instantiated as a case is processed
  • May include information such as
  • Details about case
  • Catalog/price information
  • Configuration or location information
  • Intermediate or temporary information used by
    inference mechanism
  • Often partially instantiated automatically from a
    database

8
Typical Expert Systems Applications
  • Maintenance and diagnostics
  • Configuration and design
  • Advising
  • Instruction
  • Interpretation
  • Monitoring and control, often real-time
  • Planning

9
Some Advantages of Expert Systems
  • Availability
  • Available 24/7
  • Available in inaccessible or dangerous locations
  • Consistency and reliability
  • Speed of response
  • Cost
  • Replace human experts with lower-level personnel
  • Replace human experts with machine contacts
  • Permanence (capture knowledge)
  • Easy record keeping, links to dbs, explanations
    of decisions, other uses for knowledge once
    captured

10
What does building an expert system involve?
  • Scope the problem domain
  • Choose appropriate knowledge representation for
    the problem
  • Choose appropriate inference for KR and problem
  • Implement inference or choose tool/shell
  • Create knowledge base
  • Iterate test and modify
  • Add bells and whistles

11
Characteristics of an Expert System
  • High performance as good as human expert
  • Adequate response time
  • Reliability doesnt crash, fails softly
  • Understandable
  • Builds confidence in decisions
  • Verifies the knowledge
  • Improves knowledge of users
  • Flexible

12
Good Problems for Expert Systems
  • Theoretical issues
  • Domain is well-defined and delimited
  • Experts exist, and expertise can be taught
  • Problem solving does not have heavy dependency on
    common sense
  • Information needed can be input readily
  • Typically, heuristic domains with a lot of
    uncertainty
  • Practical issues
  • Enough use to justify cost of building and
    maintaining
  • Experts are co-operative
  • Experts are rare, inaccessible, expensive,
    overworked
  • Other more appropriate solutions dont exist

13
Red Tape and Process
  • Information will be posted at http//www.csc.vill
    anova.edu/matuszek
  • Overview and text
  • Syllabus
  • Requirements
  • Academic Integrity
  • CLIPS
  • Version 6.05 on CD
  • Version 6.2 can be downloaded from download site
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