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DfE Checklist EcoDesign Strategy LCA Evaluation Other tools

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Title: DfE Checklist EcoDesign Strategy LCA Evaluation Other tools


1
DfE Checklist/ EcoDesign Strategy/ LCA
Evaluation/ Other tools
  • Green Camp Project
  • ????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????

2
????????????
  • DFE Review
  • DFE Checklist
  • EcoDesign Strategy Wheel
  • Eco-indicator LCA Evaluation
  • Other tools
  • Case Study

3
(No Transcript)
4
Improvement Strategies
Conventional Design
Green Design
Energy
Energy
Efficiency
Efficiency
Design for safe
Materials
Landfill
Manufacturing
Product Use
Efficiency
Composting or Incineration
Design for Reuse
Design for Recycling
Industrial Waste
Prevention
5
Definition of DfE
DfE
DfDA
DfR
DfX
DfDA Design for Disassembly DfR Design for
Recycling DfX Design for X i.e., Other
environment-related measures
(Reuse, waste minimization, maintenance,
etc.)
6
Design Process DfE Support Tools
QFD for Environment
DfE support tools
Degree of Freedom on Design
DfE checklist
Design for Disassembly
LCA
Conceptual design ? Detailed design ? Process
design
Early Stage
Design Process
Source Masui and Inaba, REAJ Journal,
Reliability Engineering Association of Japan,
2001, vol. 23, No.8
7
DfE Flow Design Tools
8
DfE Checklist
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???

9
DfE checklist
10
DfE checklist (cont.)
11
DfE Checklist IC Package
12
DfE Checklist IC Package (cont.)
13
EcoDesign Strategy
  • ??????? EcoDesign ?????????????????????????????
    EcoDesign ????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? ??????????????????????????
  • ??????????????? EcoDesign ????????????????????????
    EcoDesign ???????????????
  • ?????????????????? EcoDesign
  • ?????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????
  • ???????????????????????????????

14
UNEP Eco-Strategies Wheel
-
-


15
?????????????????????? EcoDesign
??????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????? ????????????????????
    ??? ??????????????????????????????????????
    (??????? 7 ??? 6) ??????? ????????????????????????
    ???? (??????? 5, 4 ??? 3) ????????????????????????
    ??????????????? (??????? 2 ??? 1)
  • ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? ?????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????
    ??? ?????????????????????????????????????

16
?????????????????????????? EcoDesign
????????????????????????
Stage in product life cycle
Affected aspect
Strategy
New product
_at_ New concept development
Production supply of materials and components
1 Selection of low-impact materials
Raw materials, Process energy
2 Reduction of materials usage
In-house Production
Auxiliary materials, Process energy
3 Optimization of production techniques
Packaging, Energy for transport
Distribution
4 Optimization of distribution system
Materials for utilization, Energy during use
5 Reduction of impact during use
Utilization
6 Optimization of initial lifetime
Auxiliary substances, Process energy
Recovery disposal
7 Optimization of end-of-life system
17
Strategy _at_ New concept development
  • Dematerialization Dematerialization
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????

18
Strategy _at_ New concept development (cont.)
  • Shared use of the product ?????????????????????
    ??? ????????????????? ????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ????
  • ???? Car sharing ????????????????
    ??????????????? ??????????????? Call-a-Car System

19
Strategy _at_ New concept development (cont.)
  • Integration of function ???????????????????????
    ???????????? ???? ????????????? ??????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ????
  • ???????? ?????? ????????????????
    ???????????????????????? Integrated
    telephone-fax-answering machine
  • Notebook computer ?????????? key-board, monitor
    ??? hard-disk ?????????????????????????????

20
Strategy _at_ New concept development (cont.)
  • Functional optimization of product
    ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ????
    ??????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
    ???????????????? ????
  • ?????????? ????????????????????? ????
    ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????
    ???? Intelligent design ???

21
Strategy 1 Select of low-impact materials
To select environmentally favorable, non-toxic
materials and surface treatments
  • 1a. Cleaner materials
  • Do not use materials or additives which are
    prohibited due to their toxicity
  • PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Lead (in PVC, electronics, dyes, batteries,
    etc.)
  • Cadmium
  • Mercury
  • Avoid energy-intensive materials such as
    aluminum in products with a short lifetime
  • 1b. Renewable materials
  • Find alternatives for exhaustible materials

22
Strategy 1 Select of low-impact materials (cont.)
  • 1c. Lower energy content materials
  • Al input energy to produce virgin Al is 184
    MJ/kg
  • input energy to product recycled Al is 18.5
    MJ/kg
  • 1d. Recycle materials
  • Use recycles materials wherever possible
  • Use secondary metals secondary aluminum copper
  • Use recycled plastics for the inner parts of
    products

23
Primary energy input for production/ combustion
of materials (1)
24
Primary energy input for production/ combustion
of materials (2)
source IPU et al (2002)
25
  • 1e. Recyclable materials
  • Select just one type of material for the product
    and sub-assemblies
  • Avoid materials which are difficult to separate
    compound materials, laminate fillers, fire
    retardants

26
Product design aimed at recycling
Compatibility of metals
Metal Copper (Cu) Aluminum (Al) Iron (Fe)
Knock-out element (decreases value of the
fraction to zero) Hg, Be, PCB
(polychlorobenzene) Cu, Fe, Polymer Cu
Penalty element (seriously decrease the value of
fraction) As, Sb, Ni, Bi, Al Si Sn, Zn
Source Brezet Hemel (1997)
27
Compatibility of plastics (1)
  • Excellent
  • Any combination of LLPE, LLPDE, ULPDE/VLDPE,
    EthyleneCopolymers, HDPE
  • PP and ULDPE/VLDPE (depending on composition)
  • EPM/EPDM and PP
  • EPM/EPDM and ULDPE/VLDPE (depending on
    composition)
  • ABS and SAN
  • PA and EthyleneCopolymers (depending on
    composition)
  • PA and EPM/EPDM (depending on composition)
  • PBT and PC
  • PET and PC
  • SBS and PS (general purpose, high impact)

28
Compatibility of plastics (2)
  • Good
  • PP and LLDPE
  • PP and EthyleneCopolymers
  • PVC and SAN
  • PVC and EthyleneCopolymers (depending on
    composition)
  • PC and SAN
  • PC and ABS
  • PMMA and SAN
  • PMMA and ABS
  • PMMA and PVC
  • PMMA and PC
  • PBT and EthyleneCopolymers (depending on
    composition)
  • SBS and ABS
  • Fair
  • EPM/EPDM and EthyleneCopolymers
  • PVC and ABS
  • PMMA and EthyleneCopolymers
  • PET and PA
  • PET and PBT
  • PET and EthyleneCopolymers (depending on
    composition)
  • SBS and SAN
  • SBS and PVC
  • SBS and PA

29
Compatibility of glass ceramics
Source Brezet Hemel (1997)
30
Strategy 2 Reduction of materials Usage
To use the least possible amount of materials by
developing lean but strong product design,
including aiming at the smallest product volume
possible for storage and distribution
  • 2a. Reduction of weight
  • Aim for rigidity through construction techniques
  • such as reinforcement ribs rather than over-
  • dimensioning the product
  • Aim to express quality through good design
  • 2b. Reduction in (transport) volume
  • Aim at reducing the amount of space/volume
    required for transport and storage by
    decreasing the products size and total volume

31
World reserves life index (1)
32
World reserves life index (2)
33
Strategy 3 Optimization of Production Techniques
To use production techniques with a low
environmental impact, which means to minimize the
use of auxiliary materials, especially the
hazardous materials, and to minimize the waste of
energy and raw materials
  • 3a. Alternative production techniques
  • Select production techniques which generate low
    emissions joining instead of soldering
  • Choose processes which make the most efficient
    use of materials powder coating instead of spray
    painting
  • 3b. Fewer production steps
  • Preferably use materials that do not require
    additional surface treatment

34
Strategy 3 Optimization of Production Techniques
(cont.)
  • 3c. Lower/cleaner energy consumption
  • Make the production processes more energy
    efficient
  • Encourage the use of renewable energy resources
    and reduce the use of fossil fuels
  • 3d. Less production waste
  • Design or modify the processes to minimize
    material waste such as pressing, punching,
    milling, etc.
  • Reduce waste the percentage of the reject
    during production
  • 3e. Fewer/cleaner production consumables
  • Good house keeping, closed production systems,
    in-house recycling

35
Strategy 4 Optimization of distribution system
To ensure that products is transported in the
most efficient manner from the factory by
tackling packaging, the mode of transport, and
logistics
  • 4a. Less/cleaner/reusable packaging
  • Use appropriate materials for the kind of
    packaging - for example, avoid the use of PVC,
    aluminum in non-returnable packaging
  • Use minimum volumes weight of packaging
  • 4b. Energy-efficient transport mode
  • Transport by container ship or train in
    preferable to transport by lorry
  • 4c. Energy-efficient logistics
  • Use standardized transport packaging bulk
    packaging

36
Strategy 5 Reduction impact during use
To design the product in such a way that the user
is unlikely to waste consumables (energy, water,
food, etc.) or other products (batteries,
cassettes, filters, etc.) while using it
  • 5a. Lower energy consumption
  • Use low energy consuming components available
  • 5b. Cleaner energy sources (especially for
    energy-intensive products)
  • 5c. Fewer consumables needed
  • Design the product to minimize consumables needed
    during use for example, a permanent filter for
    coffee maker and a correct shape to ensure
    optimal use of coffee
  • Design the product such that the user cannot
    waste consumables such as detergent, water, food,
    etc.

37
Strategy 6 optimization of initial lifetime
To extend the products lifetime in order to
guarantee a longer use in its original function
6a. Increasing reliability and durability 6b.
Easy maintenance and repair, 6c. Modular design
structure 6d. Classic design 6e. Stronger
product-user relation
38
Strategy 7 optimization of end-of-life system
To reuse valuable product components and ensure
proper waste management or to guarantee safe
incineration and waste disposal
  • 7a. Design for reuse (DfR)
  • Not prematurely obsolete in technical sense
  • 7b. Design for disassembly/recovery (DfD)
  • Modular design structure
  • Use standard joints or detachable joints
  • Ensure easy accessibility
  • Grouping the mutually-compatible materials
  • 7c. Design for remanufacture/refurbish (DfRR)
  • Hierarchical and modular design structure

39
Sequencing of EcoDesign Strategies during the
Design of Different Products
40
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41
Eco-Indicator Method
  • The Eco-indicator is primarily a tool for the
    designer. It allows the designer to make his own
    LCAs with the help of 100 pre-defined LCAs for
    commonly used materials and processes. The
    designer can use the Eco-indicator in two ways
  • To get the questions right (what are the primary
    causes of the environmental burden of a product)
  • To get the answers right (which design
    alternative has the lowest environmental burden)
  • The methodology is an extension of the SETAC LCA
    LCA methodology, it uses a normalisation and an
    evaluation stage. The evaluation is based on the
    best available knowledge of the environmental
    damage of effects on a European scale.

42
Eco-indicators
After
Before
43
Eco-indicator 99 Coffee Machine
Analysis of a coffee machine, assumption 5
years use, 2 x per day, half capacity, keep hot
for 30 minutes
Disposal (for each type of material)
Production (materials, process transport)
Material or type of process Municipal waste,
PS Municipal waste, Ferrous Household waste,
glass Municipal waste, paper
Quantity 1 kg 0.4 kg 0.4 kg 7.3 kg
Indicator 2 -5.9 -6.9 0.71
Result 2 -2.4 -2.8 5.2
Material or process Polystyrene Injection
moulding PS Aluminum Extrusion Al Steel Glass Gas-
fired heat (forming)
Quantity 1 kg 1 kg 0.1 kg 0.1 kg 0.3 kg 0.4 kg 4
MJ
Indicator 360 21 780 72 86 58 5.3
Result 360 21 78 7 26 23 21
Total
2
536
Total
Total mPt (all phase) 15,114
Use (transport, energy auxiliary materials)
Material or process Electricity
low-voltage Paper
Quantity 375 kWh 7.3 kg
Indicator 37 96
Result 13,875 701
Total
14,576
44
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45
Product Life Cycle
LCA Evaluation Full LCA
From Cradle to Grave
  • Impacts on
  • Human health
  • Ecosystems
  • Resources

46
Case Study TOYOTA
LCI Study of EV, HV, GV for 2000 Environmental
Report
2
Disposal
Maintenance
1
Driving
Vehicle production
Material production
CO2
NMHC
NOx
PM
SOx
Relative values for HV(H) and EV when a value of
1 is assigned to GV(G)
47
Use of LCA results in design process
  • Use of LCA
  • Set the target of life cycle environment
  • Check the environmental influence reduction
    effect
  • Extract of environmental improvement point
  • Assessment items of LCA

Environmental impact categories
Inventory data
Global warming
CO2, N2O, CH4
Global
Iron ore, bauxite, crude oil
etc.
Resources depletion
Local
Air pollution
NOx, SOx, NMHC, PM
48
Scope and Condition
lt Purpose gt
Environmental Impact Evaluation of
the ES3 through out its whole life cycle
(ES3 vs Conventional Diesel vehicle)
Vehicle characteristics
Vehicle name
vehicle weight
Fuel efficiency
Exhaust emission
NOx0.08g/km PM 0.005g/km
700kg
2.7L/100km
ES3
NOx0.25g/km2 PM 0.025g/km
Conventional vehicle types1
900kg
5.2L/100km
1 Engine volume and vehicle size are equivalent
to the ES3s 2 Euro Step4 standards
49
Scope and Condition
1. Functional unit
Driving mode EC mode Total
driving distance 150,000km (in 10 years)
Replace parts
12v Battery 4 times Tire 2
times Engine oil 10 times
2. Inventory items
Related to fuel efficiency and emission
CO2 Nox SOx
PM (Particulate Matter) NMHC (Non Methane
Hydrocarbons)
50
Scope of LCA
Material manufacturing
Resource extraction
Material manufacturing
Vehicle manufacturing
Parts manufacturing
Vehicle assembly
Diesel fuel refinement
Combustion
Driving
Maintenance
Replace parts manufacturing
Tire Battery Engine oil
Disposal
Shredding
Landfill
Data sources
Industrial data, literature data (Electricity
data, used for production etc. is based on
Japans average domestic electricity model )
Energy and Material manufacturing data
Part manufacturing and vehicle assembly data
In-house data Suppliers data
51
ES3 Material composition ()
52
Results of Inventory Analysis(Index)
Conventional Vehicle
CO2
ES3
Conventional Vehicle
NOx
ES3
Conventional Vehicle
SOx
ES3
Conventional Vehicle
PM
ES3
Conventional Vehicle
NMHC
ES3
Material manufacture
Vehicle manufacture
Driving
Maintenance
Disposal
53
Environmental Impact of Body
Body weight ratio of recycled aluminum ()
Pressing
Extrusion
Casting
New
New
New
Recycled
Recycled
Recycled
Case1
55
18
0
0
0
27
Case2
55
18
0
0
27
0
Case3
0
18
0
0
55
27
CO2 emission through out material / vehicle
production
54
Other tools
  • Materials selection
  • euroMat a software based method, tool for the
    selection of recyclable and environmentally
    conscious materials (http//euromat-online.de)
  • IdeMat a database software, tool for material
    selections in the design process
    (www.io.tudelft.nl/research/dfs/ idemat/index.htm)
  • EcoSpecifier - a guide to eco-preferable products
    and materials for the construction industry,
    specifically targeted at the needs of decision
    makers and specifiers. (www.ecospecifier.org)

55
Software tools
  • EIME (Environmental Information Management
    Explorer) Software for environmental evaluation
    of electronic goods (www.codde.fr)
  • EcoDesign PILOT EcoDesign Assistant
    (www.ecodesign.at)
  • QFD/Capture (www.qfdcapture.com)

56
Software tools (cont.)
  • ecologiCAD - based on a common product structure,
    like used within modern 3D CAD systems. The main
    components are Products, Assemblies, Parts, and
    Features
  • DFE Workbench focus on the analysis, synthesis,
    evaluation improvement of life cycle product
    general detailed design information

57
Software tools (cont.)
  • ATROiD stands for Assessment Tool for Recycling
    Oriented Design. ATROiD offers maximum support to
    the evaluation process and guides to continuous
    product improvement toward recyclability and
    eco-design. The software ATROiD is divided into
    three main levels assessment, analysis and
    improvement. (www.atroid.com)

58
ATROiD Software
59
Evaluation of environmental assessment tools
  • Cost time Design Objectivity
  • applicability accuracy
  • LCA -- /-
  • MET point --
  • Simplified LCA /- /-
  • Envi Benchmark. /-
  • QFDE --
  • DfE Checklist /-

Very Good, Good, /- Moderate, - Little, --
very little
60
Example Product Developments
The Essential Range Washing machine is placed
above the toilet and has a water tank that
reserves the last rinse for the next wash or to
flush the toilet.
61
ECODESIGN STRATEGIES Design for End-of-Life
POWER MAC G4
Large mechanical plastic parts are either made of
one material or of materials that are easy to
disassemble
Covers consist of not more than two types of
polymer, which may be easily separated when
disassembled during recycling
The number of different materials used in the
product is kept to a minimum
Source Apple Computer Inc.
62
POWER MAC G4
DfD features
The product is modular and no special tools are
needed to upgrade the product
Processor, memory, store memory and cards of
various types can be changed/upgraded
Appliances and modules are easily detachable
At least 50 of the components have the same
design as those of other products of the same
generation, manufacturer, and performance category
Source Apple Computer Inc.
63
POWER MAC G4
DfD features
Gluing and welding of components has been avoided
Future recycling and material utilisation
processes has been taken into account
Connections to be separated are easily traceable
Disassembly can be done exclusively with
all-purpose tools
Disassembly can be performed by a single person
Source Apple Computer Inc.
64
Product Assessment using LCA
Case Study in Thailand EcoDesign of
Air-conditioner
65
Parts / Components Assessment
66
Product Assessment EcoDesign Checklist
67
Design for Energy Saving
  • Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter
  • Use of an AC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter
  • Use of a DC Fan Motor
  • Using Evaporator Coil with Grooved Tube

Design for End of Life
  • Lead Free Solder
  • Use of R410A
  • Reduce Weight Volume
  • Use of Recyclable Materials

68
Case I Design for Energy Saving
  • Options Compressor type Energy
    saving
  • Use of a DC fan motor Single
    rotary 10
  • Use of an AC twin rotary AC twin
    rotary 30
  • compressor inverter
  • Use of a DC twin rotary DC twin rotary
    40-50
  • compressor inverter

69
Design for Energy Saving
70
Case II Design for Alternative Refrigerant
71
LCA Comparison R-22 R410A
72
Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor R410A
73
Comparison of Options for Improvement
74
Demonstration project to produce prototype of a
more environmental friendly compressor
Cast iron parts
Redesign parts
75
Current situation
  • Eco-Design Part
  • JODC-Expert dispatch Mr.Akira Arai, visit 3
    times (7-11 June 04, 22-26 Nov 04, 7-11 Feb
    05)
  • Review design detail design of the compressor
    parts
  • Making mold prototypes (connecting rod piston)
  • Finite Element Analysis (connecting rod
    crankcase)
  • Making eco-parts (connecting rod piston)
  • Friction wear resistance test (bush connecting
    rod piston)
  • Performance reliability test
  • Mechanical testing of the connecting rod

76
Mr.Akira Arai (3 Visits) Advice on compressor
design
77
LCA part
  • Goal
  • to determine the net improvement of environmental
    impact of a new prototype compressor (comparison
    of a conventional new prototype compressor)

78
System boundary current model
  • Cast iron parts
  • manufacturing
  • Motor case
  • Cylinder
  • Piston
  • Slider
  • Crank shaft

Machining
Refrigerator plant
Washing
Compressor
Extraction raw materials manufacturing
Main assembly
Painting
Usage
Other parts manufacturing
Compressor disposal
Disposal
  • Silicon steel
  • Copper wire
  • Plastic ins.

Stator assembly
Compressor plant
  • Silicon steel
  • Aluminum ingot

Rotor assembly
  • Copper tube
  • Steel sheet
  • Small press parts
  • etc.

Shell assembly
Parts preparation
Disposal scenario
Production waste
79
System boundary new model
  • Cast iron parts
  • Crank shaft

Machining
  • P/M parts
  • Crank case
  • Con-rod
  • Piston

Refrigerator plant
Washing
Compressor
Extraction raw materials manufacturing
Main assembly
Painting
Usage
Other parts manufacturing
Compressor disposal
Disposal
  • Silicon steel
  • Copper wire
  • Plastic ins.

Stator assembly
Compressor plant
  • Silicon steel
  • Aluminum ingot

Rotor assembly
  • Copper tube
  • Steel sheet
  • Small press parts
  • etc.

Shell assembly
Parts preparation
Disposal scenario
Production waste
80
Inventory data of the compressor
Emission to Air CO xxx kg CO2 xxx kg NOX xxx
kg SOX xxx kg VOC xxx kg H3PO4 xxx kg Mn
xxx kg Ethylene Glycol xxx kg
Materials/Resources Steel xxx kg Cast Iron
xxx kg Copper xxx kg Al xxx kg Plastic xxx
kg Paint xxx kg BA oil xxx L Gear Oil
xxx L NUTO Oil xxx L Telluse Oil xxx
L Cutta Oil xxx L Macron Oil xxx
L Lubricant xxx kg Trichloroethylene xxx
L Nano water xxx L Water xxx L
Emission to Water pH 7.4 BOD xxx kg COD xxx
kg SS xxx kg Grease Oil xxx kg Waste water
xxx L
Energy Uses Electricity xxx kWh LPG xxx m3 Fuel
Oil xxx L
Solid Waste Steel scrap xxx kg Cast iron waste
xxx kg
81
LCA Evaluation
82
LCA Evaluation
83
Conclusions
  • EcoDesign must enter the design process at the
    outset
  • EcoDesign must consider entire product life cycle
  • LCA EcoDesign can be used to improve the design
  • Benchmarking is necessary to compare alternatives
    or evaluate progress

84
CONTACT
?????? ?????? ???????????????????????????????? Cl
eaner Technology Advancement Program (CTAP)
National Metal and Materials Technology
Center National Science and Technology
Development Agency Tel (662) 644-8150-80
ext. 434-446 Fax (662) 644-8041 E-mail
ctap_at_mtec.or.th www.mtec.or.th/th/research/ctap
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