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Becoming a World Power


After the Civil War, America purchased Alaska from Russia ... Almost all goods labeled for Germany were declared contraband and trade with the Germany shrank. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Becoming a World Power

Becoming a World Power
I. Steps Toward Empire
America as a Model Society
  • Persistent expansion marked the first century of
    Americas history.
  • After the Civil War, America purchased Alaska
    from Russia in 1867 for 7.2 million and acquired
    a naval coaling station on Midway Island near the
    Hawaiian chain which was eventually annexed in
  • Attempts to annex Santo Domingo failed.

Expansionism in the 1890s
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Profits Searching for Overseas Markets
  • Understanding the accepted model of national
    expansion, big business supported the building of
    a stronger navy and widespread coaling stations.
  • The tremendous growth in American production
    saddled with the depression forced American
    business to seek markets overseas.

Patriotism Asserting National Power
  • Most Americans of the age saw expansion as an
    expression of national glory and greatness.
  • Piety also came into play there existed a
    missionary impulse to carry Western ideals to
    Christian lands around the globe.
  • Politics also played a role public opinion was
    emerging as a driving force in shaping political
    policy thanks to a highly competitive press.

War in Cuba And The Philippines
The Road to War
  • The Cuban struggle against Spains Gen. Weyler
    appealed to a country determined to avenge the
  • Sugar plantations also sparked national interest.
  • When the U.S. Battleship Maine was sent to Havana
    and subsequently blown to bits, America had an
    excuse to wage war against Spain.

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  • The most crucial battle of the Spanish-American
    war occurred in Manila Bay when the U.S. fleet
    destroyed the Spanish navy.
  • A subsequent Treaty of Paris granted the 7,000
    islands of the Philippines to America in return
    for a 20 million payment to Spain.
  • The ratification of the treaty led to intense
    national debate over the nature of expansion on a
    global scale.

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Theodore Roosevelts Energetic Diplomacy
Foreign Policy as Darwinian Struggle
  • Reading the theories of Charles Darwin as a young
    man, Theodore Roosevelt became convinced that
    life was a constant struggle for survival.
  • To be militarily prepared and able to fight well
    were both tests of racial superiority and
    national greatness.
  • In practical application, this meant maintaining
    large navies and the conviction to use them in
    the negotiations of diplomacy.

Taking the Panama Canal
  • 1850 treaty designating the joint administration
    of the U.S. and England in building the canal
    nullified in 1901 by the British in exchange for
    assurances of global usage
  • Where specifically to dig the canal and how to
    administrate the zone solved by U.S. sponsored
    revolution of Panama, then a province of Columbia
  • Panamanian independence and the Hay and
    Bunau-Varilla treaty created Canal Zone to be
    controlled by America

Policing the Caribbean
  • After Cuban independence, the U.S. forced the
    signing of the Platt Amendment which granted
    America many economic rights in Cuba and the
    naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
  • This pattern was repeated throughout the
    Caribbean in a policy that became known as the
    Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe doctrine.

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Roosevelt and Panama
  • As part of Roosevelts Big Stick diplomacy. He
    advised SOS John Hay to offer Columbia 10 million
    and 250,000 a year. Columbia refused a
    revolution followed and the panama canal was
    created. Completed by George Goethals. Dr.
    Gorgas worked to control malaria

Roosevelt and Venezuela
  • U.S. protected the interest of Venezuela under
    the Monroe doctrine. Agreed to arbitration with
    Britain after that country created a naval
  • Roosevelt corollary U.S. intervention should a
    American republic default on its debts an answer
    Argentine Minister Luis Drago. Would lead to
    Tafts dollar diplomacyand sales of U.S goods

China and the open door
  • Russia, Germany, France and Great Britain, forced
    China to lease their ports to them sometimes for
    99 years. These areas were known as the sphere
    of influence.
  • The U.S. opposed this and wanted an open door
    policyspearheaded by John Hay

Boxer Rebellion
  • Many Chinese thought the U.S. was going to tear
    down a monument.
  • These rebels killed some 200 foreigners and
    wanted to rid the country of Christianity.
  • John Hay was quick to send a second series of
    open door notes outlining chinas right to
    territorial integerity. However this was never
    fully realized and the east would become a
    balance of power between the Western Nations

Russo-Japanese War
  • Russia and Japan fought over the resources of
  • By 1905 Roosevelt worked out plans for peace
    between the two countries.
  • Japan would give up claims in return for
    indemnity. Russia gave up parts of Manchuria.
    Japan would become dominate in Japan and Korea .
  • The treaty of Portsmouth was known as a
    gentlemans agreement.

Big Stick Activity
  • Write Several examples of Rossevelts Big Stick
    Diplomacy and how it affected the United States
    politically and economically.
  • China
  • Venezuela
  • Panama
  • Japan
  • Russia
  • Dominican Republic

Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • Wanted to strike a new note in international
    affairs centered on sheer honesty and
  • This idea is tested in Mexico when Pres. Madero
    is assassinated by Victoriano Huerta.
  • Huerta was favored by American Capitalists but
    Wilson did not recognize the government. Sent
    troops into Veracruz and was meant with
    anti-American sentiment.
  • Other issues include Poncho Villa killing 18
    Americans in Columbus New Mexico. Wilson would
    eventually recall troops in 1917

Morality and the Caribbean
  • Military presence in Nicaragua, Haiti and the
    Dominican Republic.
  • Purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark

War in Europe
  • Complex system of Alliances
  • Triple AllianceGermany, Austria Hungary and
    Italy, VS. The Triple Entente Russia, UK,
  • Serbian National Gavrillo Princip assonates Franz
    Ferdinand of Austria Hungary. Russia defends
    Serbia. Germany defends Austria Hungary and war
    is declared in August 1914.

Issue of Neutrality
  • America remained neutral though had historic ties
    to both the UK and France
  • Irish and German immigrants hoped for a German
  • Though the U.S. was suppose to trade openly with
    both warring factions. Almost all goods labeled
    for Germany were declared contraband and trade
    with the Germany shrank.
  • At the same time trade with Allied powers
    quadrupled. The U.S lent them 2 million. And
    citizens bought another 2 billion in War bonds
  • The only recourse the Germans had was to attack
    unarmed ships like the Lusitana. 128 Americans
    died the Germans had warned the U.S. not to
    travel on the ship.

The Sussex Pledge
  • Wilson pleaded with Germany to stop targeting non
  • Not wanting to strengthen the Allies further
    Germany agreed to stop targeting Merchant ships
    and compensated those injured on the Sussex.
  • The Pledge meant Wilsons goal of keeping the
    U.S. out of war