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World War II

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World War II. Killings outside of Vilna recorded by Polish Journalist 'About 150 persons shot. ... Hitler's post war world ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
2
Killings outside of Vilna recorded by Polish
Journalist
  • About 150 persons shot. Most of them were
    elderly people. The executioners complained of
    being very tired of their work, of having
    aching shoulders from shooting. That is the
    reason for not finishing the wounded off, so that
    they are buried half alive.

3
Father Maximilian Kolbe
  • Auschwitz/end of July
  • Pole escaped from a labor detail therefore 10
    men from his block were taken and locked in a
    cell to be starved to death
  • Father Kolbe asked to take one of the mens place
    I am alone in this world, that man, Francis
    Gajowniczek, has a family to live for.
  • The commandant accepted and Father Kolbe was the
    last to die.
  • 30 years later, at a ceremony for beatification
    for Kolbe, the man whose place he took attended
    with his wife

4
1 August, in Minsk
  • Himmler watched an execution
  • One of his aides later recorded that from one or
    other of the people who had been shot in the
    head, he got a splash of brains on his coat, and
    I think it also splashed into his face, and he
    went very green and pale he wasnt actually sick
    but he was heaving and turned round and swayed
    and then I had to jump forward and hold him
    steady and then I led him away from the grave.

5
Zyklon-B
  • Tested at Auschwitz in August
  • Commercial pesticide
  • Tested on POWs
  • Took out the irritant so as not to alarm the
    people

6
4 August
  • Hitler told Field Marshal von Bock and General
    Guderian Had I known they had as many tanks as
    that, Id have thought twice before invading.

7
  • FDR and Churchill meet for first time as leaders
    off the coast of Newfoundland
  • FDR issued a statement that was drafted by
    Churchill any further encroachment by Japan
    in the SW Pacific would create a situation where
    the US government would be obliged to react, and
    this may lead to war with Japan.
  • Atlantic Charter is also issued no nation would
    be allowed to increase its power or territory as
    a result of the war

8
Anglo-American Military Mission to Moscow
  • Discuss Soviet needs in relation to American
    production
  • Churchill to his War Cabinet we might have to
    make some sacrifices when it comes to receiving
    supplies from the United States may need to
    divert them to Russian Front

9
Jews in German-occupied Russia
  • Every Jew was ordered to wear two yellow badges
    one on the chest, one on the back not to walk
    on the pavements, not to use public transport,
    not to visit parks, playgrounds, theatres,
    cinemas, libraries or museums and to receive in
    the ghetto only food which was surplus to local
    needs

10
Who is in charge?
  • Hitler demanded that the main German thrust
    should be to the Crimea, the Southern Russian
    industrial zones, and the Caucasus. Put some
    more pressure on Leningrad. But Moscow could
    wait.
  • His generals wanted the focus to be on Moscow,
    and in fact, to be beyond Moscow by winter.

11
3 August
  • In Munster, the Bishop denounced the euthanasia
    killings from the pulpit.
  • Public discontent was growing
  • Hitler, therefore, ordered the euthanasia program
    to be brought to an end.

12
Results of euthanasia program called T4
  • More than 80,000 mental patients, and 100,000
    concentration camp prisoners had been gassed
    between September 1939 and August 1941.

13
Hitler 19 August
  • For the good of the German people we must wish
    for a war every fifteen or twenty years. An army
    whose sole purpose is to preserve peace leads
    only to playing soldiers look at Sweden and
    Switzerland.

14
21 August
  • In Paris a Communist named Pierre Georges (late
    adopted the code name Fabien) shot and killed a
    young German soldier in a Metro station.
  • First violence towards a German in Paris since
    the occupation began (over a year)
  • More than 150 Frenchmen were shot in return

15
Hitlers assurance to Japanese Ambassador in
Berlin
  • …in the event of a collision between Japan and
    the United States, Germany would at once open
    hostilities with the United States.

16
We are in the presence of a crime without a
name.
  • Churchill commenting on intercepted messages
    about the mass killings of the Jews.
  • Had he mentioned the Jews specifically, he would
    have revealed the fact that they were reading the
    most secret of the German messages

17
Scope of the War
  • Both on 25 August
  • Operation Countenance British and Indian troops
    attack and occupy the southern oilfield region of
    Iran
  • Operation Gauntlet British, Canadian, and
    Norwegian commando units land on Norwegian island
    of Spitzbergen in the Artic Ocean

18
Dunkirk of the Baltic
  • Russian evacuation of 23,000 soldiers from Baltic
    port of Tallinn.

19
Defense of Leningrad
  • Russians were using gun batteries of cruiser
    Aurora, along with other mounted naval gun
    batteries.
  • Does the name Aurora sound familiar?

20
4 September Greer attacked
  • US destroyer
  • Off the coast of Iceland reached Iceland safely
  • From now on, if German or Italian vessels of war
    enter these waters, they do so at their own
    peril. - FDR
  • Undeclared state of war existed in North Atlantic
  • 2 days later, in the Red Sea, a US merchant ship
    was sunk by German aircraft 220 miles south of
    Suez

21
9 September
  • British cryptologists at Bletchley decrypted
    radio traffic discussing the planned attack on
    Moscow Operation Typhoon

22
Trap near Kiev
  • Russian troops fought for 2 weeks to keep the
    trap open
  • By the time it was closed (16 Sept) 600,000
    Russian soldiers were captured
  • Even by 16 September the Germans were nervous
    about the Russian winter
  • Was success as vivid as they thought?

23
Codex Judaicum
  • Issued in the Slovak capital of Bratislava
  • Removed the legal rights of the 135,000 Jews in
    Slovakia

24
12 September
  • Hitler orders a halt to the drive on Leningrad
  • City is to be starved into submission
  • Airport on Leningrads north side stayed open
    for 2 ½ months supplies were flown in totaling
    6,000 tons 1,660 tons of arms and munitions,
    4,325 tons of food

25
Hitlers situation
  • 16 Sept HX 150, transatlantic convoy, sails
    from Halifax, Nova Scotia with American escorts
  • Berlin announced that 86,000 German soldiers had
    been killed since the invasion of Russia
  • Resistance in Yugoslavia and Russia was tying
    down considerable German troops

26
24 September
  • Japanese Consul in Hawaii Nagai Kita was
    ordered to report number of ships in five zones
    of Pearl harbor
  • We intercepted this message and it was sent to
    Washington
  • Was not given special attention routine spy
    assignment similar orders given for Manila,
    Panama, Seattle…

27
Mass Killings
  • Babi Yar
  • A 2-day massacre
  • 33,771 Jews were killed outside of Kiev
  • Black Sea cities of Nikolayev and Kherson 35,782
    Jews and Communists were killed
  • One Russian mayor baptized several hundred Jews
    in order to protect them he was arrested and
    shot

28
27 September
  • Patrick Henry was launched
  • 10,000 ton merchant ship
  • Launched at Baltimore Naval Yard
  • It was the first of what were to be many thousand
    of standardized, mass produced ships that were
    known as Liberty Ships

29
30 September
  • Britain agrees to send Russia her share of
    supplies from the Untied States
  • 1,800 fighter aircraft
  • 2,250 tanks
  • 500 anti-tank guns
  • 23,000 machine guns
  • 25,000 tons of copper
  • 27,000 tons of rubber
  • 250,000 soldiers greatcoats

30
Copy of page 240
31
Movin, movin, movin get those factories movin
  • By end of September Russia had moved 1,360
    factories East to parts of Siberia, the Urals,
    the Volga, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia.
  • As these estimated 1.5 million railway cars moved
    the factories east, they moved troops west

32
Living off the land
  • Scorched earth was practiced

33
October 4
  • In Kovno all the patients, doctors, and nurses in
    the ghetto hospital, as well as the orphans in
    the Jewish orphanage, were locked in the
    building, which was then set on fire.
  • Anyone trying to escape was shot.
  • 3 days later the mass murder of the 17,000 Jews
    in Rovno began

34
BBC Propaganda
  • Over the BBC, every seven seconds a German voice
    said Every seven seconds a German dies in
    Russia. Is it your husband? Is it your son? Is
    it your brother?

35
10 October
  • Zhukov was brought out of Leningrad to take
    command of the new Western Front
  • The deaths due to starvation had just begun to
    occur

36
Plight of the Soviet POW
37
Operation Karlsbad
  • First German offensive against Soviet partisans
  • Impact on actual military offensives

38
Mother Nature
  • 14 October the temperature throughout the
    central battle front fell below zero.
  • 15 October diary in the SS Deaths Head
    Division recorded the first substantial snowfall
    ten inches of snow
  • How does this impact German blitzkrieg?
  • How does it impact T-34? (wider tread)

39
Dunkirk - again
  • Evacuations from Tallinn

40
Protecting Moscow
  • On the approaches to Moscow, 56 bridges were
    mined
  • Inside Moscow 16 more bridges were mined

41
16 October
  • In Tokyo, the government of Prince Konoye was
    forced out replaced by administration of
    General Hideki Tojo, the Minister of War

42
Impact of Resistance fighters
  • The one effective highway between Smolensk and
    Vyazma was booby-trapped with high explosive
    shells.
  • When blown up, it caused craters 30 feet wide and
    8 feet deep

43
20 October
  • By this date, 500,000 men and women were
    mobilized in Moscow to dig a total of 5,000 miles
    of trenches and anti-tank ditches
  • 185 miles of barbed wire were laid out
  • The Germans were only 65 miles from Moscow
  • The Germans had captured 600,000 square miles of
    Russian land, with a population of 65 million
  • They had captured more than 3 million Soviet POWs

44
Hitlers post war world
  • When one enters the Reich Chancellery, one
    should have the feeling that one is visiting the
    master of the world. One will arrive there along
    wide avenues containing the Triumphal Arch, the
    Pantheon of the Army, the Square of the People
    things to take your breath away!
  • Built in granite Granite will ensure that our
    monuments will last forever.

45
Changing the method of execution
  • Gas was to be used mobile gas vans at first
  • Gas would spare/protect the Germans from
    shootings
  • Killings would be done in seclusion
  • After one gas van killing, there were 290 Jew
    killed at Kalisz the surviving members were
    then billed for the transport
  • Done in secret reduce the chance of discovery

46
29 October
  • American destroyer Reuben James was attacked by
    German submarine and sunk killing 115 sailors.
    Was escorting a convoy.
  • The next day FDR told Stalin that Presidential
    approval had been given for 1 billion of
    Lend-Lease aid for Russia with no interest and
    with repayment not having to begin until 5 years
    after the war.

47
31 October
  • The Russians completed the evacuation of 17,614
    armament factory workers and 8,590 wounded Red
    Army, Navy, and Air Force officers from
    Leningrad.
  • SS General von dem Bach Zelewski reported to
    Berlin Today, there are no more Jews in
    Estonia.

48
3 November
  • In Tokyo, the Combined Fleet Top-Secret Order
    No. 1 was issued
  • Pearl Harbor was to be attacked in 34 days
  • Were to be simultaneous attacks on the British in
    Malaya and on the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies,
    and the American in the Philippines

49
The Philippines
  • The tanks, guns, and soldiers MacArthur has asked
    for and been promised would not arrive until
    April 1942.
  • The Philippines were stuck

50
6 November
  • Japanese airplanes, flying from aircraft carriers
    carried out a 200 mile practice attack on
    Kagoshima Bay similar to Pearl Harbor.

51
8 November
  • However long the war may last, the last
    battalion in the field will be a German one. We
    are deciding the fate of Europe for the next
    thousand years.
  • Hitlers comments to the beer hall celebration in
    Munich

52
9 November
  • 10 Axis supply ships were sunk in the
    Mediterranean on their way to re-supply Rommel in
    North Africa.
  • Their cargoes, date of departure, strength of the
    escort and their route had all been discovered
    through code breaking efforts

53
9 November
  • That night in Leningrad, the Radio Symphony
    Orchestra performed Beethovens Ninth Symphony in
    the citys philharmonic Hall. The concert was
    broadcast live to London. When the 3rd part of
    the symphony began the air raid sirens, impact of
    falling bombs, and anti-aircraft fire could be
    heard over the air. The orchestra finished the
    concert. At the conclusion, the announcer signed
    off and wished the listeners in Great Britain
    goodnight.

54
12 November
  • The Moscow front was hit with -12 temperatures
    that caused frostbite on many German soldiers.
  • A new and powerful weapon against which they had
    to fight

55
13 November
  • US Congress amended the Neutrality Act by a
    margin of 212 194.
  • Allowed American merchant ships to be armed and
    to travel in war zones

56
Power of the Jews
  • Churchill He has not allowed it to break his
    spirit he has never lost the will to resist.
  • Operational Situation Reports USSR detailed over
    100 examples of Jewish resistance that fall and
    winter
  • Jews also took part in other partisan activity

57
Hiding the truth
  • The Germans were increasingly trying to hide what
    was happening to the Jews and other groups facing
    mass execution
  • Under reasons enter completion of vital war
    assignments. The word execution should under
    no circumstances be mentioned.

58
15 November
  • Complaint from SS General Eicke about Deaths
    Head Division --- those of German language and
    culture who lived in areas outside the Germany of
    1938 --- were wounding themselves to get out of
    service.
  • Since entering Russia 4 ½ months earlier the
    division had suffered 8,993 casualties ½ its
    initial strength

59
Goebbels about the Holocaust
  • Compassion and regret are entirely out of place
    here.

60
Increasing cold on the Eastern Front
  • On the Eastern Front it was getting so cold that
    sentries that fell asleep at their posts froze to
    death by dawn
  • So cold that German automatic weapons only fired
    one shot at a time
  • Had to dig pits and light fires to warm their
    tanks enough
  • Meanwhile, the Russians are building up their
    reinforcements

61
Operation Crusader
  • British and Commonwealth forces attack locations
    in North Africa in order to take some pressure
    off the Eastern Front

62
Red Army prisoners
  • As many as 3 million Soviet POWs had been taken
    in the previous 5 months
  • On 21 November, Albert Speer asked Hitler for
    35,000 Soviet POWs to help with building Berlin
    monuments and buildings (project would begin
    before the war was over)
  • Method of death for Soviet POWs

63
Across the frozen lake
  • Leningrad was being re-supplied across Lake
    Ladoga.
  • 22 November 60 trucks
  • Before snowfall the lake was very creepy to drive
    across
  • Numerous trucks would fall through on various
    occasions
  • In a 7 day period, 800 tons of flour were brought
    into the city, and forty trucks had gone to the
    bottom

64
Inside Leningrad
  • Although a lifeline had been opened it was still
    horrible inside Leningrad
  • During November around 400 people were dying each
    day from starvation
  • Inside Warsaw at the same time deaths were at a
    rate of 200 a day from starvation

65
Inside Warsaw
  • Sometimes a mother cuddles a child frozen to
    death, and tries to warm the inanimate little
    body. Sometimes a child huddles against his
    mother, thinking that she is asleep and trying to
    awaken her, while, in fact, she is dead.

66
Operation Z
  • Japanese First Air Fleet assembly in Tankan Bay
    in the Kurile Islands.
  • 6 aircraft carriers, a light cruiser, 9
    destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, and
    3 submarines
  • 25 Nov date set for the working of diplomacy
  • If no solution was agreed by then, things will
    automatically begin to happen. intercepted
    message

67
Moscow Front
  • By 23 November, German forces were within 30
    miles of Moscow
  • Hitler started one month too late
  • Time is his greatest nightmare now.

68
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