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Introduction to World Regional Geography

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Ptolemy-Greek astronomer who designed early map of the world. ... Ptolemy's World Map, circa 150 A.D. Ibn Battuta's travels 1300 A.D. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to World Regional Geography


1
Introduction to WorldRegional Geography
  • Study of Geography
  • Evolution of Geography
  • Contributions of the Greeks/Romans
  • geo (the earth) graphos (to write about/describe)
  • Herodotus-Father of Geography who explained the
    physical and human geography of his day
  • Aristotle- explained processes of the earth,
    influence of temperature, wind, soils and
    vulcanism
  • Eratosthenes- measured circumference of the earth
    from angle of the sun at two points
  • Construction of earth grids- longitude and
    latitude

2
  • Established the science of cartography
  • Ptolemy-Greek astronomer who designed early map
    of the world.
  • Strabo- description of Roman World, spatial
    perspective of the known world
  • Middle Ages
  • Geography falls into disrepute in Middle Ages
  • Golden Age of Islamic Civilization
  • Arabs were outstanding geographers, continued
    tradition of map-making
  • Ibn Batuta travels throughout Middle East,
    observations of peoples and lands
  • Avicennas understanding of physical geography,
    creation of mountains

3
  • Ibn Khalduns Muqaddimah provides an account of
    the influence of man physical environment on
    social and political institutions
  • observations are model of scientific research on
    history and geography
  • traveled extensively throughout North Africa and
    Middle East
  • importance of cities and urbanization on the
    level of civilization.

4
Ptolemy's World Map, circa 150 A.D.
5
Ibn Battutas travels 1300 A.D.
Ibn Battutas Travels 1300 AD
6
  • Renaissance and Age of Discovery
  • Resurgence of geography as a science
  • Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal, new more
    accurate maps
  • Early explores question old concepts in light of
    discovery
  • Scientific travelers, Alexander von Humbolts
    description of the earth
  • Karl Ritter- understanding of the human dimension
    of the world
  • Geography is respected branch of knowledge in
    European university, particularly in Germany
  • Importance of the National Geographic Society in
    US founded in 1888
  • Chinese contributions to geography

7
  • World Regional Geography
  • Different fields of Geography
  • Physical Geography, study of the environment,
    location of terrain, physical features of the
    land
  • Human Geography, study of human occupation of
    the land
  • Regional Geography, analysis of environmental
    and human patterns within an area or region

8
  • Regions of the World
  • (1) Europe
  • (2) Russia
  • (3) North America
  • (4) Middle America
  • (5) South America
  • (6) North Africa/Southwest Asia
  • (7) Subsaharan Africa
  • (8) South Asia
  • (9) East Asia
  • (10) Southeast Asia
  • (11) Australia
  • (12) Pacific Realm

9
  • Format of course
  • background/historical factors
  • physical features
  • climate
  • population
  • cultural features
  • social and economic factors
  • agriculture
  • industry
  • environmental problems

10
Basic Geographical Factors
  • Climate
  • Climatic differences are result of differences in
    the processes by which earths atmosphere is
    heated and cooled
  • Radiation and absorption of heat energy determine
    climatic variations
  • Lower the latitude, the more solar energy
    received
  • Suns rays strike earth at vertical angles in
    lower latitudes

11
  • heat dissipated by air currents and ocean
    currents
  • Higher the elevation, the less dense is air and
    less the air can hold water vapor. Air temps
    decrease 3.6 degrees F per 1000 feet of elevation
  • Precipitation
  • What causes rainfall? Physical process of how
    air is cooled is the cause of rainfall
  • When water vapor in atmosphere is cooled to point
    that it condenses, it changes from a gaseous
    state to liquid state
  • Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air

12
  • Types of precipitation
  • Convectional precipitation- equatorial latitudes
    with land mass warming, as hot air rises it
    precipates
  • Orthographic precipitation- air force up over
    mountains, cooling rapidly and producing rain
  • Cyclonic/Frontal precipitation-cold front pushes
    up under war air front or warm front rises over
    cold front. Found in mid latitudes

13
Types of Precipitation
14
  • Types of Climate
  • Type A Climate (Humid Equatorial Climate
  • High temperatures all year
  • High precipitation
  • Subtypes (Af)high rainfall every month
    (Am) monsoon (Aw) savanna with
    unpredictable rainfall
  • Type B Climate (Dry Climate)
  • lower and higher altitudes
  • (Bw) true desert (Bs) semi-arid steppe
  • soils thin and poor
  • high range of temperatures (140-48 degrees F)

15
  • Type C Climate (humid temperature climates)
  • found above and below tropic of cancer and
    tropic of capricorn
  • US (Kentucky-Florida) Europe southern
    Brazil/northern Argentina South Africa,
    Australia, China, and Japan
  • Subtypes (Cf) No drive season i.el Marine West
    Coast (Cw) dry winter Cs) dry summers,
    Mediterranean climates
  • Type D Climate (humid cold continental climates)
  • great annual range of temperatures
  • very cold winters cool summers
  • total precipitation not high, much snow
  • found in interiors of North America/Eurasia
  • best soils in world with high levels of humus

16
  • Type E Climates
  • vary from true ice-cap conditions to tundra with
    4 months/year of temps above freezing
  • high mountain areas
  • near arctic conditions with limited vegetation

17
  • Population
  • Questions (1) What factors responsible for
    growth of human population? (2) What is density
    and distribution of the worlds population? (3)
    What models of population explain change?
  • Growth of population
  • 5 million from 5,000 BC to 2,000BC
  • 250 million at beginning of Christian era
  • 500 million in 1650 AD
  • 1 billion in 1850 AD
  • 2 billion in 1950 AD
  • 5.7 billion in 1998 AD
  • 7 billion estimated by 2010 AD

18
(No Transcript)
19
  • Models of Population Change
  • Demographic transition
  • Stage I
  • preindustrial agrarian economy
  • high birth rate and high death rate
  • relatively stable population that grows slowly
  • large of children useful for work in fields and
    social security
  • life expectancy low security dependent on family
  • Stage II
  • high birth rates, falling death rates
  • improvements in public health, sanitation, and
    medicine
  • productivity of agriculture improves
  • opportunity for employment in cities
  • industrialization , urbanization, specialization
    of labor

20
  • Stage III
  • birth rate declines
  • smaller families due to urbanization and demands
    for education
  • children more of a liability in an urban,
    industrial environment
  • population growth declines dramatically
  • Stage IV
  • birth rates and death rates very low
  • population growth stabilizes or grows very slowly
  • Amount of time to go through demographic
    transition?
  • Western Europe/US 150 years
  • Soviet Union40 years
  • Japan25 years

21
Demographic Transition
22
Demographic TransitionMDCs vs. LDCs
23
  • Human Cultural Hearths
  • Most cultural hearths established from 5,000BC to
    1,000 BC
  • Primary cultural hearths
  • Middle East (Tigris, Euphrates and Nile Rivers)
  • Indus Valley (Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa)
  • China (Yellow River and North China plain)
  • Secondary cultural hearths
  • Mesoamerican civilization (Mayans and Aztecs)
  • Bantu civilization in Africa (Central/South
    Africa and the Ethiopian highlands)
  • European civilization

24
  • Economic factors
  • Sectors of the Economy
  • primary sector (fishing, extracting natural
    resources, forestry, agriculture)
  • secondary sector (processing basic commodities,
    manufacturing)
  • tertiary sector (services provided by government
    and private sector)
  • quarternary sector (institutions that provide
    information to make decisions, computers, data
    analysis)
  • Modernization and development brings about
    changes in nature of the economy

25
  • Economic indicators of modernization and
    development
  • level of GNP and GNP per capita
  • per capital consumption of inanimate energy
  • percentage of labor force in agriculture
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