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Gilded Age

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Partisanship was rampant, Republican party dominated the White House from 1869-1913. ... Rutherford B. Hayes tried to bring some morality back to the White House ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gilded Age


1
Gilded Age
  • Political Corruption

2
  • The Gilded Age 1865-1900
  • Rampant political corruption
  • Even so, voters were very active at the poll.
    About 80 of the registered voters turned out.
  • Partisanship was rampant, Republican party
    dominated the White House from 1869-1913.
  • Federal government did little for the people,
    states were expected to take up the slack.
  • Big business monopolies started to take an
    active roll in government.

3
Grants Administration
  • The 1st of the corrupt administrations during the
    Gilded Age.
  • Ran off the Spoils Old Boy Systems.
  • Buying selling votes, etc.
  • Factions within each party began to develop to
    combat the increase in corruption within the
    government.

4
Hayess Administration
  • Rutherford B. Hayes tried to bring some morality
    back to the White House
  • During his administration, the Republican party
    split into 2 groups, the Stalwarts the
    Half-Breeds.
  • The Stalwarts were led by Sen. Roscoe Conkling of
    New York. They were for the spoils system,
    reward appointees, supported Grant, Radical
    Reconstruction, etc.
  • The Half-Breeds were led by Sen. James G. Blaine
    of Maine. They promoted Civil Service reform.

5
  • Both groups were mainly to advance Conkling
    Blaines political careers.
  • These men hated each other and their bickering
    hurt the Rep. party greatly. Causing it to lose
    votes, politicians, etc.
  • Pres. Hayes distanced himself from these 2 groups
    as much as possible.
  • He started focusing on the corruption within the
    government the publics dislike of it.
  • Started looking at Civil Service Reforms.

6
Civil Service
  • Series of exams to place the most qualified
    person in a government job. Not place someone
    because you owe them. The Merit System or
    weighted applications were used.
  • Originated in China, used in Europe and just now
    making its way to the US.
  • Many US politicians were following in England,
    Germany Frances footsteps. The American
    public was tired of the corruption, poor
    management lack of services provided by the
    Federal government

7
  • Hayes got the ball rolling for civil service
    reform, although he was unable to get any
    legislation during his time in office.
  • He did start a merit system only be removed for
    the good of the government, not the party
    parties would have no influence on appointments
    political contributions would not be assessed for
    political appointment those in office could not
    manage campaigns for political organizations.

8
New York Customs House Scandal
  • Pres. Hayes had to deal with one of the biggest
    scandals during this time of unrest.
  • Chester A. Arthur Alonzo Cornell were fired by
    Pres. Hayes for not performing their duties,
    pay-offs, kick-backs, and using their positions
    for the benefit of Roscoe Conkling the
    Stalwarts.
  • Hayess handling of the scandal, the use of US
    troops to break up a RR strike, his own little
    scandal concerning how he was elected, kept him
    out of the running for a 2nd term.

9
Garfields Administration
  • The Dark-Horse candidate beat out Grant for the
    Rep. nomination in 1880. Chester A. Arthur was
    selected as his VP candidate, for the Stalwarts.
  • July 2, 1881, Pres. Garfield was shot at the
    Washington, D.C. RR station by Charles Guiteau.
    Guiteau felt he alone was responsible for
    Garfield being elected Pres., he wanted a
    political appointment.

10
  • As he fired on the Pres. was carried away, he
    yelled I Am A Stalwart!! Connecting himself
    with Conkling the Stalwarts, starting their
    decline in the rep. party.
  • Pres. Garfield was not seriously wounded, but his
    Dr. could not find the bullet. He suffered fro
    over 2 months before dying from infection
    complications brought on by the bullet.
  • Alexander Graham Bell was brought in to invent
    something to help the Dr. locate the bullet,
    also, this is the 1st use of Refrigeration in
    the White House. The air conditioning was set up
    to keep the Pres. comfortable.
  • What did Bell invent?

11
Arthurs Administration
  • Arthur was made Pres. was still associated with
    the NY Customs House Scandal.
  • The Stalwarts thought they had an insider in the
    White House.
  • Arthur stayed away from the Stalwarts Conkling.
    Turned out to be a pretty good Pres.
  • Allied himself with the Reformers.
  • Started going after kick-back schemes, i.e., Star
    Route Frauds the postal service.

12
  • The Pendleton Civil Service Act-1883
  • Set up a 3 member Civil Service Commission, an
    independent committee, free from any department
    or committee pressure. Answered only to the
    Pres.
  • Government jobs would now be filled by the best
    qualified applicant, instead of favoritism.
  • This effectively ended the Spoils Old Boy
    system.

13
Cleveland vs. Blaine
  • Arthur upset too many of the Rep. Stalwarts to
    be selected for a 2nd term. James G. Blaine, the
    leader of the Half-Breeds, was picked for the
    Rep. party.
  • Split the party again with the Goo-Goos or good
    government, the Mugwumps or those having
    their mug on one side of the fence their wumps
    on the other.
  • Supposedly against pay-offs spoils, he was
    associated with the Mulligan Letters claiming
    he was in the pockets of the RR barons sold his
    votes for their interests. He denounced the
    claims.

14
  • Blaine was caught eating at the very expensive
    Delmonico restaurant in NYC, with several
    millionaire big wigs called Belshazzars
    Feast.
  • The final nail in his political coffin were the
    comments made about the Irish the Catholics,
    who had generally backed him.

15
Clevelands Administration
  • Grover Cleveland was selected by the Dem. won
    the Pres. election. He had a history of
    anti-corruption policies, when he was a mayor
    Governor.
  • He was scandalized by the newspapers for having
    an affair with a widow fathering an
    illegitimate child in 1874. He was a college
    student at the time, but never denied he was the
    father took care of the child.

16
  • He set up the Interstate Commerce Commission
    (ICC) in 1887, which was established to
    investigate RR prosecute violators, to ensure
    that all rates were reasonable just. Very weak
    to start with , but laid the foundation for
    subsequent laws to add teeth to this and many
    other regulatory commissions laws.
  • The Murchison Letter, a Rep. sent a letter to
    the British Prime Minister using the name Charles
    Murchison, asking him how he should vote in the
    Pres. election.
  • This caused Cleveland to lose the election.

17
Harrisons Administration
  • He carried on with civil service reform, but
    caused his own scandal by appointing a wealthy
    Philadelphia businessman to Post-Master General.
    Supposedly as a reward for campaign
    contributions.
  • He appointed Theodore Roosevelt to the Civil
    Service Commission. This would come back to
    haunt him later. Roosevelt would be like a
    bulldog and go after anything he seen as corrupt.
  • Republicans ruled the White House both Houses
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890-the 1st law to
    restrict monopolies trusts.

18
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890- required the
    Treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver
    per month issue notes redeemable in gold or
    silver.
  • McKinley Tariff 1890- raised duties on
    manufactured goods 50
  • During his time in office, Idaho, Wyoming, North
    South Dakota, Montana Washington were
    admitted to the Union

19
Farm Movements
  • The Patrons of Husbandry late 1860s - a
    gentlemans club. Did not address the issues of
    most farmers.
  • The Grange 1870 Oliver Kelley, left the
    Patrons of Husbandry and started this group.
    Very popular in the mid-west. Started as a
    social educational movement for the isolated
    farmers. Wanted to perpetuate farm ideals
    morals. Good Wholesome living
  • Stressed the need for education, i.e., vo-tech,
    AM schools etc.

20
  • Pushed for Co-operatives
  • Opened the doors for other groups like the Ag.
    Wheel, Farmers Unions Farmers Alliance,
    Farmers Ed. Co-operative Union, The Brothers
    of Freedom, etc.
  • The Farmers Union next to the Grange, it was
    the largest longest lived of the groups.
  • Had a lot in common with the Southern Alliance
  • Formed in Texas, spread eastward.
  • Membership qualifications were a white person or
    Indian of industrious habits, of sound mind the
    belief in God

21
  • Black Farmers could join the Negro Farmers
    Laborers Ed. Cooperative Union of America.
  • The Farmers Alliance largest membership of any
    Dirt Farmer group, appealed to small, white
    farmers. Opposed industrial encroachment into
    rural areas. Very anti-immigrant, did not want
    the US to become the cesspool of Europe..
  • Very conservative, each region had an Alliance
    many states had Alliances. Had local, state,
    regional national representation in government

22
  • All the Ag. Groups pushed for education in the
    rural areas, representation in government
    better policies for the American farmer.
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